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**The Efficient Learning of Multiplication Tables**

Elizabeth Anderson Glenavon School

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Principles The Twos: If child knows doubles from addition the two times tables are at hand The Fives: May know from telling the minutes on a clock for time May know multiply even number by 5 and is half the even number with a 0 added Or may know a x 5 = ½ (a x 10)

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**The nines – a x 9 where a is a single digit the answer always adds up to 9.**

The first digit in the answer is a – 1 Display fingers with a finger folded – on left of finger tens, on right of finger ones.

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Skip counting Skip counting in 2’s, 3’s, 4’s and 5’s helps with those tables

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Easy Parts If chn know easier parts can breakdown more difficult parts, eg 6 x 6 = 36 may be used to work out 8 x 6 by noting 8 x 6 = 2 x x 6 = = 48

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Twice as much Finding facts that are 2ce as much as a known fact eg 2 x 8 = 16 leads to 4 x 8 = twice 16 = 32

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The Ones Chn learn y x 1 = y for any y

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The noughts Chn learn that y x 0 = 0 for any y

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**Cummutative principle**

Chn learn that a x b = b x a This shows reflective symmetry along the diagonal axis

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Method Chn sit a pre-test of all tables 0x – 9x – 100 Multiplication facts Make a chart of known facts expected to learn and then coloured when covered and learnt to show rapid progress Work in pairs to share solution methods and explain their ideas Ideas reported back to class At end of lesson child wrote in journal to share learning with a friend

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**Following each lesson the squares learnt were coloured in to show learning**

Chn learn 64 out of 100 facts by end of 0x, 1x, 2x, and 5x covered in 1 or 2 lessons depending on capability of class Focus on remaining ‘difficult’ facts

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Lesson One Focus Question: The zero times table – is there anything special about the zero times table. How would you explain it to a friend. Same for 1 and 2 times tables Focus question: What can you find out about the 5 times table? Next test on 64 facts, 0, 1, 2 and 5 times

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**Lesson Two Elicit reactions to test on 64 facts**

Focus question: 24 is our special number. Make up number sentences that give an answer of 24. This was repeated for 48 and 12 Add to chart; 6x4, 4x6, 8x3,3x8, plus 6x8, 8x6 and 3x4, 4x3 Chn put these facts in journal and learn overnight

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Lesson Three Focus Task: Think about 9 and represent it in a number of ways. Can you think of ways to explain how you would describe 9 to others?

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Lesson Four Focus Task: Explore the answers to the 9 times table to find strategies to help you remember this table Discuss hand strategy

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**Lesson Five Complete 3x and 4x on chart.**

Discuss 3x – skip counting in 3’s Discuss patterns found in 4x – twice the 2x tables

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Lesson Six Focus Question: How would a person who did not know 6x7 and 7x6 work it out? Eg. If you know your 3 times tables you can work it out. 3x7 =21 so 6x7 = 21+21=42

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Lesson Seven Focus Task: Work out 7x8 – this being the fact people find the hardest to remember. Do not use repeated addition. Eg.7x7 = = 56

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**Post test Test and chart on 100 multiplication facts**

Compare results!!!

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**Borrowed from Vivienne Morrison**

St Margarets College 2002

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