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Urban-Rural Development and Associated Changes in Ecosystem Services in Japan ICSS-Asia 2009, Session 3 Urban-Rural (16:30-18:30, Nov.23, 2009) Osamu Saito.

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Presentation on theme: "Urban-Rural Development and Associated Changes in Ecosystem Services in Japan ICSS-Asia 2009, Session 3 Urban-Rural (16:30-18:30, Nov.23, 2009) Osamu Saito."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urban-Rural Development and Associated Changes in Ecosystem Services in Japan ICSS-Asia 2009, Session 3 Urban-Rural (16:30-18:30, Nov.23, 2009) Osamu Saito Waseda Institute for Advanced Study Waseda University

2 Outline I.Satoyama and its Ecosystem Services II.How Satoyama has changed? III.Urban-Rural Linkage: Risks, Opportunities, and Trade-offs IV.Some Leading Actions: 1.Furano, Hokkaido 2.Nasu, Tochigi 3.Motegi, Tochigi V.Implications for Urban-Rural Sustainability 2

3 I.Satoyama and its Ecosystem Services Satoyama can be defined as dynamic social-ecological coupled landscapes comprising of a mosaic of different ecosystem types producing synergy of a bundle of ecosystem services for human wellbeing. Characteristics of Satoyama are followings: - Satoyama is a mosaic composed of various types of ecosystems including farmlands, forests, irrigation ponds and ditches, grasslands and pasture. - From Satoyama, local dwellers have traditionally harvested various resources (ecosystem services) in a sustainable way. - Biodiversity in Satoyama is key elements to provide a bundle of ecosystem services. - The spatial structure and patterns in the mosaics are diverse with each social, economic, and ecological contexts. 3

4 4

5 Ecosystem Services: The benefits people obtain from ecosystems (MA, 2003)

6 Focus: Consequences of Ecosystem Change for Human Well-being

7 MA Framework Direct Drivers Indirect Drivers Ecosystem Services Human Well-being Direct Drivers of Change Changes in land use Species introduction or removal Technology adaptation and use External inputs (e.g., irrigation) Resource consumption Climate change Natural physical and biological drivers (e.g., volcanoes) Indirect Drivers of Change Demographic Economic (globalization, trade, market and policy framework) Sociopolitical (governance and institutional framework) Science and Technology Cultural and Religious Human Well-being and Poverty Reduction Basic material for a good life Health Good Social Relations Security Freedom of choice and action

8 Sub-Global Assessments (SGA) Multi-scale assessment – Includes information from 33 sub-global assessments Japan ( )

9 Provisioning Services Regulating Services Supporting Services Cultural Services - Rice - Sake - Fish -Wild edible plants - Charcoal - Bamboo shoots (takenoko) - Mushrooms (e.g. Matsutake, Shitake) - Genetic resources - Medicinal plants - Berries - Bush meat - Timber - Water, etc. - Climate control (in Japan) - Local air quality control - Flood control - Erosion control - Landslide control - Water quality control - Water filtration - Control of wild animals Population - Pest control - Habitat for migrating birds - Pollination control - Buffering against acid rain and dust, etc. - Nutrient cycling - Groundwater supporting - Carbon storage, etc. - Eco-tourism - Traditional knowledge - Symbols and heritage of Japanese culture - Spiritual monuments and objects (e.g. temples, mountains) - Folklore - Festivals Based on the PPT slide prepared for Sub-global Assessment of Satoyama and Satoumi in Japan by UNU-IAS (18 November 2008) Ecosystem Services from Satoyama

10 II. How Satoyama has changed? 10 (Source) UN, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Population change and projection People Population Ratio of Over 65 Yeas Old (2005)

11 11 Globalization

12 Trend of Farmland in Japan Land 1. 2.

13 Trend of arable land by type of field Land

14 Trend of abandoned former arable land 14 Unit:10,000ha % of the total arable land

15 Region Type Total arable land (ha) Abandoned arable land (ha) Ratio (%) (ha) (ha)(%) (National total) 3,693, Urban area 525, Flat rural area 1,771, Intermediate rural area 1,027, Mountainous rural area 368, Abandoned arable land by region type 2008 ( 15

16 16 Dominant causes for biodiversity loss in Japan Development of lake, river and pond Coastal and marine development Alien species Dam construction Road construction Woodland and grassland abandonment Coniferous plantation Clearing forest

17 Expansion of golf course construction in the Tokyo MA Golf courses Shinkansen Prefectures Highway 2008: Over 800 courses in Tokyo MA

18 III. Urban-Rural Linkage: Risks, Opportunities, and Trade-offs 18 Risks: Losing vitality of rural communities Expanding abandoned arable land and woodland Degradation of ecosystem services and biodiversity loss Expanding damage son agriculture and forestry by wild animals (deer, wild boar, etc) Maintaining rural infrastructures including road, dam, tunnels, bridges, sewage, school, hospital, etc. Opportunities: Revitalizing rural communities through urban-rural interaction Transforming to compact city Nature restoration Creating new industries for elderly (retired) population Utilize abandoned farmland and forest stock for energy, material use and carbon stock Sustainable tourism Grass roots conservation activities Trade-offs: Urban-rural: Realize development of compact city at the expense of further depopulation of rural areas Within region: Over exploitation and destruction of rural ecosystem by promoting green tourism, expanding renewable energy Inter-regional: Widening regional differences. Only limited number of leading regions can maintain their vitality while the rest are losing it in the long run International: Keep on depending on imported resources while there are abundant forest stock and arable land Lags between social and ecological responses

19 19 Trade-offs of urban-rural interaction and development (U-WILL) Urban Area (Downstream) Rural Area (Upstream) Other Regions 1.Urban-rural: Realize development of compact city at the expense of further depopulation of rural areas 2.Within region: Over exploitation and destruction of rural ecosystem by promoting green tourism, expanding renewable energy 3.Inter-regional: Widening regional discrepancy. Only limited number of leading regions can improve and maintain their vitality while the rest are losing it in the long run 4.International: Keep on depending on imported resources while there are abundant forest stock and arable land 5.Lags between social and ecological responses Other countries 4 Lags between social and ecological responses 5 Regional (basin) scale Inter-regional to country scale

20 Examples of tradeoff within region 20 (a) Lose-Lose : Unrestrained ecotourism can lead to infrastructure and human traffic that degrades many ecosystem services, and ecotourism itself collapses. (b) Win-Win : Ecotourism develops with good management of biodiversity and ecosystem services, so that income flows from tourism, biodiversity is enhanced, and ecosystem services are not lost. (c) Win-Lose (tradeoff) : Ecotourism develops and biodiversity is protected in nature reserves, but the increase in roads and hotels undermines water quality and fisheries, causing tradeoffs among ecosystem services and development. (Source) Tallis et al. (2008) 2 Within region

21 IV. Some Leading Actions Furano, Hokkaido lead by NPO Forest restoration ×Green tourism × Environmental education and training 4-2 Nasu, Tochigi lead by Private company Pasturing in abandoned woodland × Valued- added dairy products × Forest products including non-timber forest products × Green tourism × Education and training 4-3 Motegi, Tochigi lead by Town Composting of food waste, wood residues and leaves ×Local resource circulation × Farmers market × Community revitalization

22 4-1. Environmental Program NPO C.C.C. Furano Field In 2005 when Furano Prince Hotel golf course was closing down, Soh Kuramoto, the chair man of C.C.C. (Creative Conservation Club), proposed to return it to the former forest it once was. Now, the club uses the site for two purposes - firstly, restoring the forest and secondly, promoting environmental education within the project site May 6First tree planted in closed golf course Oct 15Publicly announced to the Press and the Media Trees planted:1, Apr 3NPO establishment registered Jun 1Beginning of Environmental program Visitors:1,056 Trees planted:10, Visitors:3,205 Trees planted:10, Visitors:2,800 Trees planted:7,658 Total number of trees planted thus far:29,370 (Source)

23 23 (Source)

24 4-2. Creating Natural Industry in Nasu by Amita Corp. 24 (Source) Abandoned woodland Consumers/ Supporters Farmland Crops Milk Ice cream Cafe Millet Woodland pasture

25 4-3. Midori Compost Center in Motegi 25 To Midori Compost Center Household food waste Leaves of deciduous woodland Animal waste Sell compost to local farmers Sell agri- products to local market (Source) (2006). Wood residues

26 VI. Implications (ABCDE) for Urban-Rural Sustainability 26 A void uniform and ad hoc management Diverse, dynamic, and long-term commitment B alance between over-use (development) and under-use (abandonment) Determine the appropriate management level through collaborative discourse-based planning in each rural area C reate a new commons and players to take care of it D iscover local resources and connect different sectors and various players D oing by leaning: Realize scientific assessment and monitoring and provide feedback to planning and management Adaptive management E stablish a standard set of measures and approaches for quantifying and monitoring ecosystem service levels and values (Tallis et al. 2008)

27 Woodland pasture in Nasu 27 The End


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