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© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 1 – Operations and Productivity Chapter 1 – Operations and Productivity © 2006 Prentice Hall,

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Presentation on theme: "© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 1 – Operations and Productivity Chapter 1 – Operations and Productivity © 2006 Prentice Hall,"— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 1 – Operations and Productivity Chapter 1 – Operations and Productivity © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles of Operations Management, 6e Operations Management, 8e

2 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 2 Outline Global Company Profile: Hard Rock Cafe Global Company Profile: Hard Rock Cafe What Is Operations Management? What Is Operations Management? Organizing To Produce Goods And Services Organizing To Produce Goods And Services Why Study OM? Why Study OM? What Operations Managers Do What Operations Managers Do How This Book Is Organized How This Book Is Organized

3 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 3 Outline - Continued The Heritage Of Operations Management The Heritage Of Operations Management Operations In The Service Sector Operations In The Service Sector Differences Between Goods And Services Differences Between Goods And Services Growth Of Services Growth Of Services Service Pay Service Pay Exciting New Trends In Operations Management Exciting New Trends In Operations Management

4 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 4 Outline - Continued The Productivity Challenge The Productivity Challenge Productivity Measurement Productivity Measurement Productivity Variables Productivity Variables Productivity And The Service Sector Productivity And The Service Sector Ethics And Social Responsibility Ethics And Social Responsibility

5 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 5 Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter, you should be able to: Identify or Define: Production and productivity Production and productivity Operations management (OM) Operations management (OM) What operations managers do What operations managers do Services Services

6 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 6 Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter, you should be able to: Describe or Explain : A brief history of operations management A brief history of operations management Career opportunities in operations management Career opportunities in operations management The future of the discipline The future of the discipline Measuring productivity Measuring productivity

7 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 7 The Hard Rock Cafe First opened in 1971 First opened in 1971 Now – 110 restaurants in over 40 countries Now – 110 restaurants in over 40 countries Rock music memorabilia Rock music memorabilia Creates value in the form of good food and entertainment Creates value in the form of good food and entertainment 3,500 + custom meals per day in Orlando 3,500 + custom meals per day in Orlando How does an item get on the menu? How does an item get on the menu? Role of the Operations Manager Role of the Operations Manager

8 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 8 What Is Operations Management? Production is the creation of goods and services Operations management (OM) is the set of activities that creates value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs

9 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 9 Organizing to Produce Goods and Services Essential functions: Essential functions: Marketing – generates demand Marketing – generates demand Production/operations – creates the product Production/operations – creates the product Finance/accounting – tracks how well the organization is doing, pays bills, collects the money Finance/accounting – tracks how well the organization is doing, pays bills, collects the money

10 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 10 Organizational Charts Operations Teller Scheduling Check Clearing Collection Transaction processing Facilities design/layout Vault operations Maintenance Security Finance Investments Security Real estate Accounting Auditing Marketing Loans Commercial Industrial Financial Personal Mortgage Trust Department Commercial Bank Figure 1.1(A)

11 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 11 Organizational Charts Operations Ground support equipment Maintenance Ground Operations Facility maintenance Catering Flight Operations Crew scheduling Flying Communications Dispatching Management science Finance/ accounting Accounting Payables Receivables General Ledger Finance Cash control International exchange Airline Figure 1.1(B) Marketing Traffic administration Reservations Schedules Tariffs (pricing) Sales Advertising

12 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 12 Marketing Sales promotion Advertising Sales Market research Organizational Charts Operations Facilities Construction; maintenance Production and inventory control Scheduling; materials control Quality assurance and control Supply-chain management Manufacturing Tooling; fabrication; assembly Design Product development and design Detailed product specifications Industrial engineering Efficient use of machines, space, and personnel Process analysis Development and installation of production tools and equipment Finance/ accounting Disbursements/ credits Receivables Payables General ledger Funds Management Money market International exchange Capital requirements Stock issue Bond issue and recall Manufacturing Figure 1.1(C)

13 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 13 Why Study OM? OM is one of three major functions (marketing, finance, and operations) of any organization OM is one of three major functions (marketing, finance, and operations) of any organization We want (and need) to know how goods and services are produced We want (and need) to know how goods and services are produced We want to understand what operations managers do We want to understand what operations managers do OM is such a costly part of an organization OM is such a costly part of an organization

14 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 14 Options for Increasing Contribution Sales$100,000$150,000$100,000$100,000 Cost of Goods – 80,000– 120,000– 80,000– 64,000 Gross Margin20,00030,00020,00036,000 Finance Costs– 6,000 – 6,000– 3,000– 6,000 Subtotal14,00024,00017,00030,000 Taxes at 25%– 3,500– 6,000– 4,250– 7,500 Contribution$ 10,500$ 18,000$ 12,750$ 22,500 Finance/ MarketingAccountingOM OptionOptionOption IncreaseReduceReduce SalesFinanceProduction CurrentRevenue 50%Costs 50%Costs 20%

15 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 15 What Operations Managers Do Planning Planning Organizing Organizing Staffing Staffing Leading Leading Controlling Controlling Basic Management Functions

16 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 16 Ten Critical Decisions Ten Decision AreasChapter(s) Service and product design5 Service and product design5 Quality management6 6 Supplement Quality management6 6 Supplement Process and capacity 7 design 7 Supplement Process and capacity 7 design 7 Supplement Location8 Location8 Layout design9 Layout design9 Human resources, 10 job design 10 Supplement Human resources, 10 job design 10 Supplement Supply-chain 11 management11 Supplement Supply-chain 11 management11 Supplement Inventory management12, 14, 16 Inventory management12, 14, 16 Scheduling13, 15 Scheduling13, 15 Maintenance17 Maintenance17 Table 1.2

17 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 17 The Critical Decisions Service and product design Service and product design What good or service should we offer? What good or service should we offer? How should we design these products and services? How should we design these products and services? Quality management Quality management How do we define quality? How do we define quality? Who is responsible for quality? Who is responsible for quality? Table 1.2 (cont.)

18 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 18 The Critical Decisions Process and capacity design Process and capacity design What process and what capacity will these products require? What process and what capacity will these products require? What equipment and technology is necessary for these processes? What equipment and technology is necessary for these processes? Location Location Where should we put the facility? Where should we put the facility? On what criteria should we base the location decision? On what criteria should we base the location decision? Table 1.2 (cont.)

19 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 19 The Critical Decisions Layout design Layout design How should we arrange the facility and material flow? How should we arrange the facility and material flow? How large must the facility be to meet our plan? How large must the facility be to meet our plan? Human resources and job design Human resources and job design How do we provide a reasonable work environment? How do we provide a reasonable work environment? How much can we expect our employees to produce? How much can we expect our employees to produce? Table 1.2 (cont.)

20 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 20 The Critical Decisions Supply-chain management Supply-chain management Should we make or buy this component? Should we make or buy this component? Who are our suppliers and who can integrate into our e-commerce program? Who are our suppliers and who can integrate into our e-commerce program? Inventory, material requirements planning, and JIT Inventory, material requirements planning, and JIT How much inventory of each item should we have? How much inventory of each item should we have? When do we re-order? When do we re-order? Table 1.2 (cont.)

21 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 21 The Critical Decisions Intermediate and short–term scheduling Intermediate and short–term scheduling Are we better off keeping people on the payroll during slowdowns? Are we better off keeping people on the payroll during slowdowns? Which jobs do we perform next? Which jobs do we perform next? Maintenance Maintenance Who is responsible for maintenance? Who is responsible for maintenance? When do we do maintenance? When do we do maintenance? Table 1.2 (cont.)

22 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 22 Where are the OM Jobs? Figure 1.2

23 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 23 Where are the OM Jobs? Technology/methods Technology/methods Facilities/space utilization Facilities/space utilization Strategic issues Strategic issues Response time Response time People/team development People/team development Customer service Customer service Quality Quality Cost reduction Cost reduction Inventory reduction Inventory reduction Productivity improvement Productivity improvement

24 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 24 Significant Events in OM Figure 1.3

25 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 25 The Heritage of OM Division of labor (Adam Smith 1776; Charles Babbage 1852) Division of labor (Adam Smith 1776; Charles Babbage 1852) Standardized parts (Whitney 1800) Standardized parts (Whitney 1800) Scientific Management (Taylor 1881) Scientific Management (Taylor 1881) Coordinated assembly line (Ford/ Sorenson/Avery 1913) Coordinated assembly line (Ford/ Sorenson/Avery 1913) Gantt charts (Gantt 1916) Gantt charts (Gantt 1916) Motion study (Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 1922) Motion study (Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 1922) Quality control (Shewhart 1924; Deming 1950) Quality control (Shewhart 1924; Deming 1950)

26 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 26 The Heritage of OM Computer (Atanasoff 1938) Computer (Atanasoff 1938) CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957) CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957) Material requirements planning (Orlicky 1960) Material requirements planning (Orlicky 1960) Computer aided design (CAD 1970) Computer aided design (CAD 1970) Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975) Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975) Baldrige Quality Awards (1980) Baldrige Quality Awards (1980) Computer integrated manufacturing (1990) Computer integrated manufacturing (1990) Globalization (1992) Globalization (1992) Internet (1995) Internet (1995)

27 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 27 Eli Whitney Born 1765; died 1825 Born 1765; died 1825 In 1798, received government contract to make 10,000 muskets In 1798, received government contract to make 10,000 muskets Showed that machine tools could make standardized parts to exact specifications Showed that machine tools could make standardized parts to exact specifications Musket parts could be used in any musket Musket parts could be used in any musket

28 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 28 Frederick W. Taylor Born 1856; died 1915 Born 1856; died 1915 Known as father of scientific management Known as father of scientific management In 1881, as chief engineer for Midvale Steel, studied how tasks were done In 1881, as chief engineer for Midvale Steel, studied how tasks were done Began first motion and time studies Began first motion and time studies Created efficiency principles Created efficiency principles

29 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 29 Taylors Principles Matching employees to right job Matching employees to right job Providing the proper training Providing the proper training Providing proper work methods and tools Providing proper work methods and tools Establishing legitimate incentives for work to be accomplished Establishing legitimate incentives for work to be accomplished Management Should Take More Responsibility for:

30 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 30 Frank & Lillian Gilbreth Frank ( ); Lillian ( ) Frank ( ); Lillian ( ) Husband-and-wife engineering team Husband-and-wife engineering team Further developed work measurement methods Further developed work measurement methods Applied efficiency methods to their home and 12 children! Applied efficiency methods to their home and 12 children! Book & Movie: Cheaper by the Dozen, book: Bells on Their Toes Book & Movie: Cheaper by the Dozen, book: Bells on Their Toes

31 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 31 Born 1863; died 1947 Born 1863; died 1947 In 1903, created Ford Motor Company In 1903, created Ford Motor Company In 1913, first used moving assembly line to make Model T In 1913, first used moving assembly line to make Model T Unfinished product moved by conveyor past work station Unfinished product moved by conveyor past work station Paid workers very well for 1911 ($5/day!) Paid workers very well for 1911 ($5/day!) Henry Ford

32 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 32 W. Edwards Deming Born 1900; died 1993 Born 1900; died 1993 Engineer and physicist Engineer and physicist Credited with teaching Japan quality control methods in post- WW2 Credited with teaching Japan quality control methods in post- WW2 Used statistics to analyze process Used statistics to analyze process His methods involve workers in decisions His methods involve workers in decisions

33 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 33 Contributions From Human factors Human factors Industrial engineering Industrial engineering Management science Management science Biological science Biological science Physical sciences Physical sciences Information science Information science

34 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 34 New Challenges in OM Global focus Global focus Just-in-time Just-in-time Supply chain partnering Supply chain partnering Rapid product development, alliances Rapid product development, alliances Mass customization Mass customization Empowered employees, teams Empowered employees, teamsToFrom Local or national focus Local or national focus Batch shipments Batch shipments Low bid purchasing Low bid purchasing Lengthy product development Lengthy product development Standard products Standard products Job specialization Job specialization

35 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 35 Characteristics of Goods Tangible product Tangible product Consistent product definition Consistent product definition Production usually separate from consumption Production usually separate from consumption Can be inventoried Can be inventoried Low customer interaction Low customer interaction

36 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 36 Characteristics of Service Intangible product Intangible product Produced and consumed at same time Produced and consumed at same time Often unique Often unique High customer interaction High customer interaction Inconsistent product definition Inconsistent product definition Often knowledge-based Often knowledge-based Frequently dispersed Frequently dispersed

37 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 37 Industry and Services as Percentage of GDP ServicesManufacturing AustraliaCanadaChina Czech Rep FranceGermany Hong Kong JapanMexico Russian Fed South Africa SpainUKUS

38 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 38 Goods Versus Services Table 1.3 Can be resold Can be inventoried Some aspects of quality measurable Selling is distinct from production Product is transportable Site of facility important for cost Often easy to automate Revenue generated primarily from tangible product Attributes of Goods (Tangible Product) Attributes of Services (Intangible Product) Reselling unusual Difficult to inventory Quality difficult to measure Selling is part of service Provider, not product, is often transportable Site of facility important for customer contact Often difficult to automate Revenue generated primarily from the intangible service

39 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 39 Goods and Services Automobile Computer Installed carpeting Fast-food meal Restaurant meal/auto repair Hospital care Advertising agency/ investment management Consulting service/ teaching Counseling Percent of Product that is a GoodPercent of Product that is a Service 100% % ||||||||| Figure 1.4

40 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 40 Organizations in Each Sector Service Sector Example % of all Jobs Professional Services, Education, Legal, Medical Notre Dame University, San Diego Zoo, Arnold Palmer Hospital 25.5 Trade (retail, wholesale) Walgreens, Wal-Mart, Nordstroms 20.6 Utilities, Transportation Pacific Gas & Electric, American Airlines, Santa Fe R.R., Roadway Express 7.1 Table 1.4

41 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 41 Organizations in Each Sector Service Sector Example % of all Jobs Business and Repair Services Snelling and Snelling, Waste Management, Pitney-Bowes 6.9 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate Citicorp, American Express, Prudential, Aetna, Trammel Crow 6.7 Food, Lodging, Entertainment McDonalds, Hard Rock Café, Motel 6, Hilton Hotels, Walt Disney, Paramount Pictures 5.4 Public Administration U.S., State of Alabama, Cook County 4.5 Table 1.4

42 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 42 Organizations in Each Sector Manufacturing Sector Example % of all Jobs General General Electric, Ford, U.S. Steel, Intel 13.3 Construction Bechtel, McDermott 7.1 Agriculture King Ranch 2.5 Mining Homestake Mining 0.4 Sector Percent of all jobs Service76.7% Manufacturing23.3% Table 1.4

43 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 43 Services Manufacturing Development of the Service Economy Figure 1.5 (A) Agriculture

44 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 44 Development of the Service Economy Figure 1.5 (B) – – – – – 5 5 – 0 0 – – – – – – – 25 0 – 0 Employment (millions) Index: 1997 = 100 Index: 1997 = 100 Manufacturing employment Industrial production Estimate

45 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 45 Development of the Service Economy Figure 1.5 (C) United States Canada France Italy Britain Japan W. Germany ||||| Percent

46 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 46 New Trends in OM Local or national focus Low-cost, reliable worldwide communication and transportation networks Global focus Batch (large) shipments Short product life cycles and cost of capital put pressure on reducing inventory Just-in-time shipments Low-bid purchasing Quality emphasis requires that suppliers be engaged in product improvement Supply- chain partners, Enterprise Resource Planning, e-commerce Figure 1.6 PastCausesFuture

47 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 47 New Trends in OM Lengthy product development Shorter life cycles, Internet, rapid international communication, computer- aided design, and international collaboration Rapid product development, alliances, collaborative designs Standardized products Affluence and worldwide markets; increasingly flexible production processes Mass customization with added emphasis on quality Job specialization Changing socioculture milieu; increasingly a knowledge and information society Empowered employees, teams, and lean production Figure 1.6 PastCausesFuture

48 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 48 New Trends in OM Low-cost focus Environmental issues, ISO 14000, increasing disposal costs Environmentally sensitive production, green manufacturing, recycled materials, remanufacturing Figure 1.6 PastCausesFuture

49 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 49 Productivity Challenge Productivity is the ratio of outputs (goods and services) divided by the inputs (resources such as labor and capital) The objective is to improve this measure of efficiency Important Note! Production is a measure of output only and not a measure of efficiency

50 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 50 Feedbackloop Feedback loop Outputs Goods and servicesProcesses The U.S. economic system transforms inputs to outputs at about an annual 2.5% increase in productivity per year. The productivity increase is the result of a mix of capital (38% of 2.5%), labor (10% of 2.5%), and management (52% of 2.5%). The Economic System Inputs Labor, capital, management Figure 1.7

51 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 51 Increasing Productivity – The LA Motor Pool Before: Cost $120 million annually Cost $120 million annually 21,000 vehicles 21,000 vehicles 30% of the 900 trash trucks were in repair 30% of the 900 trash trucks were in repair 11% of police cars were in repair 11% of police cars were in repair Actions: Created team assignments Created team assignments Assigned parking places for trucks Assigned parking places for trucks Tires checked and trucks emptied each night Tires checked and trucks emptied each night Standard customer pickups established Standard customer pickups established Computerized fleet management Computerized fleet management Mechanics moved to night shift Mechanics moved to night shift

52 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 52 Increasing Productivity – The LA Motor Pool Cost $120 million annually Cost $120 million annually 21,000 vehicles 21,000 vehicles 30% of the 900 garbage trucks were in repair 30% of the 900 garbage trucks were in repair 11% of police cars were in repair 11% of police cars were in repairBefore:Actions: Creating team assignments Creating team assignments Assigned parking places for trucks Assigned parking places for trucks Tire checked and trucks emptied each night Tire checked and trucks emptied each night Standard customer pickups established Standard customer pickups established Computerized fleet management Computerized fleet management Mechanics moved to night shift Mechanics moved to night shift Results: Total fleet reduced by 500 vehicles Parts inventory dropped 20% reducing cost by $5.4 million annually Standardized pickups reduced costs by $12 million annually Out of service garbage trucks dropped to 18%

53 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 53 Measure of process improvement Measure of process improvement Represents output relative to input Represents output relative to input Only through productivity increases can our standard of living improve Only through productivity increases can our standard of living improve Productivity Productivity = Units produced Input used

54 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 54 Productivity Calculations Productivity = Units produced Labor-hours used = = 4 units/labor-hour 1, Labor Productivity

55 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 55 Multi-Factor Productivity Output Labor + Material + Energy + Capital + Miscellaneous Productivity = Also known as total factor productivity Also known as total factor productivity Output and inputs are often expressed in dollars Output and inputs are often expressed in dollars

56 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 56 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: = Old labor productivity 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs

57 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 57 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = Old labor productivity =.25 titles/labor-hr

58 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 58 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = Old labor productivity = New labor productivity =.25 titles/labor-hr 14 titles/day 32 labor-hrs

59 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 59 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = Old labor productivity =.25 titles/labor-hr 14 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = New labor productivity =.4375 titles/labor-hr

60 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 60 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: = Old multifactor productivity 8 titles/day $

61 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 61 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day $ = Old multifactor productivity =.0077 titles/dollar

62 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 62 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day $ = Old multifactor productivity = New multifactor productivity =.0077 titles/dollar 14 titles/day $

63 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 63 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day $ titles/day $ = Old multifactor productivity = New multifactor productivity =.0077 titles/dollar =.0097 titles/dollar

64 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 64 Measurement Problems Quality may change while the quantity of inputs and outputs remains constant Quality may change while the quantity of inputs and outputs remains constant External elements may cause an increase or decrease in productivity External elements may cause an increase or decrease in productivity Precise units of measure may be lacking Precise units of measure may be lacking

65 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 65 Productivity Variables Labor - contributes about 10% of the annual increase Labor - contributes about 10% of the annual increase Capital - contributes about 32% of the annual increase Capital - contributes about 32% of the annual increase Management - contributes about 52% of the annual increase Management - contributes about 52% of the annual increase

66 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 66 Key Variables for Improved Labor Productivity Basic education appropriate for the labor force Basic education appropriate for the labor force Diet of the labor force Diet of the labor force Social overhead that makes labor available Social overhead that makes labor available Maintaining and enhancing skills in the midst of rapidly changing technology and knowledge Maintaining and enhancing skills in the midst of rapidly changing technology and knowledge

67 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 67 Labor Skills About half of the 17-year-olds in the US cannot correctly answer questions of this type Figure 1.8

68 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 68 Investment and Productivity in Selected Nations US UK Canada Italy Belgium France Netherlands Japan Percent increase in mfg productivity Percentage investment

69 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 69 Service Productivity Typically labor intensive Typically labor intensive Frequently focused on unique individual attributes or desires Frequently focused on unique individual attributes or desires Often an intellectual task performed by professionals Often an intellectual task performed by professionals Often difficult to mechanize Often difficult to mechanize Often difficult to evaluate for quality Often difficult to evaluate for quality

70 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 70 Productivity at Taco Bell Improvements: Revised the menu Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment Training and employee empowerment

71 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 71 Productivity at Taco Bell Improvements: Revised the menu Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment Training and employee empowerment Results: Preparation time cut to 8 seconds Management span of control increased from 5 to 30 In-store labor cut by 15 hours/day Stores handle twice the volume with half the labor Fast-food low-cost leader

72 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 72 Ethics and Social Responsibility Challenges facing operations managers: Developing safe quality products Developing safe quality products Maintaining a clean environment Maintaining a clean environment Providing a safe workplace Providing a safe workplace Honoring community commitments Honoring community commitments


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