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1 - 1© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1 1 Operations and Productivity PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer and Render.

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Presentation on theme: "1 - 1© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1 1 Operations and Productivity PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer and Render."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 - 1© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1 1 Operations and Productivity PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer and Render Operations Management, 10e Principles of Operations Management, 8e PowerPoint slides by Jeff Heyl

2 1 - 2© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Outline Global Company Profile: Hard Rock Cafe What Is Operations Management? Organizing to Produce Goods and Services Why Study OM? What Operations Managers Do

3 1 - 3© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Outline - Continued The Heritage of Operations Management Operations in the Service Sector Differences between Goods and Services Growth of Services Service Pay Exciting New Trends in Operations Management

4 1 - 4© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Outline - Continued The Productivity Challenge Productivity Measurement Productivity Variables Productivity and the Service Sector Ethics and Social Responsibility

5 1 - 5© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter you should be able to: 1.Define operations management 2.Explain the distinction between goods and services 3.Explain the difference between production and productivity

6 1 - 6© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter you should be able to: 4.Compute single-factor productivity 5.Compute multifactor productivity 6.Identify the critical variables in enhancing productivity

7 1 - 7© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Hard Rock Cafe First opened in 1971 Now – 129 restaurants in over 40 countries Rock music memorabilia Creates value in the form of good food and entertainment 3,500 + custom meals per day in Orlando How does an item get on the menu? Role of the Operations Manager

8 1 - 8© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall What Is Operations Management? Production Production is the creation of goods and services Operations management (OM) Operations management (OM) is the set of activities that create value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs

9 1 - 9© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Organizing to Produce Goods and Services Essential functions: 1.Marketing 1.Marketing – generates demand 2.Production/operations 2.Production/operations – creates the product 3.Finance/accounting 3.Finance/accounting – tracks how well the organization is doing, pays bills, collects the money

10 1 - 10© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Organizational Charts Operations Teller Scheduling Check Clearing Collection Transaction processing Facilities design/layout Vault operations Maintenance Security Finance Investments Security Real estate Accounting Auditing Marketing Loans Commercial Industrial Financial Personal Mortgage Trust Department Commercial Bank Figure 1.1(A)

11 1 - 11© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Organizational Charts Operations Ground support equipment Maintenance Ground Operations Facility maintenance Catering Flight Operations Crew scheduling Flying Communications Dispatching Management science Finance/ accounting Accounting Payables Receivables General Ledger Finance Cash control International exchange Airline Figure 1.1(B) Marketing Traffic administration Reservations Schedules Tariffs (pricing) Sales Advertising

12 1 - 12© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Marketing Sales promotion Advertising Sales Market research Organizational Charts Operations Facilities Construction; maintenance Production and inventory control Scheduling; materials control Quality assurance and control Supply-chain management Manufacturing Tooling; fabrication; assembly Design Product development and design Detailed product specifications Industrial engineering Efficient use of machines, space, and personnel Process analysis Development and installation of production tools and equipment Finance/ accounting Disbursements/ credits Receivables Payables General ledger Funds Management Money market International exchange Capital requirements Stock issue Bond issue and recall Manufacturing Figure 1.1(C)

13 1 - 13© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Why Study OM? 1.OM is one of three major functions of any organization, we want to study how people organize themselves for productive enterprise 2.We want (and need) to know how goods and services are produced 3.We want to understand what operations managers do 4.OM is such a costly part of an organization

14 1 - 14© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Options for Increasing Contribution Table 1.1 Sales$100,000$150,000$100,000$100,000 Cost of Goods – 80,000– 120,000– 80,000– 64,000 Gross Margin20,00030,00020,00036,000 Finance Costs– 6,000 – 6,000– 3,000– 6,000 Subtotal14,00024,00017,00030,000 Taxes at 25%– 3,500– 6,000– 4,250– 7,500 Contribution$ 10,500$ 18,000$ 12,750$ 22,500 Finance/ MarketingAccountingOM OptionOptionOption IncreaseReduceReduce SalesFinanceProduction CurrentRevenue 50%Costs 50%Costs 20%

15 1 - 15© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall What Operations Managers Do Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Controlling Basic Management Functions

16 1 - 16© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Ten Critical Decisions Ten Decision AreasChapter(s) 1.Design of goods and services5 2.Managing quality6, Supplement 6 3.Process and capacity 7, Supplement 7 design 4.Location strategy8 5.Layout strategy9 6.Human resources and 10 job design 7.Supply-chain 11, Supplement 11 management 8.Inventory, MRP, JIT12, 14, 16 9.Scheduling13, Maintenance17 Table 1.2

17 1 - 17© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Critical Decisions 1.Design of goods and services What good or service should we offer? How should we design these products and services? 2.Managing quality How do we define quality? Who is responsible for quality? Table 1.2 (cont.)

18 1 - 18© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Critical Decisions 3.Process and capacity design What process and what capacity will these products require? What equipment and technology is necessary for these processes? 4.Location strategy Where should we put the facility? On what criteria should we base the location decision? Table 1.2 (cont.)

19 1 - 19© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Critical Decisions 5.Layout strategy How should we arrange the facility? How large must the facility be to meet our plan? 6.Human resources and job design How do we provide a reasonable work environment? How much can we expect our employees to produce? Table 1.2 (cont.)

20 1 - 20© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Critical Decisions 7.Supply-chain management Should we make or buy this component? Who should be our suppliers and how can we integrate them into our strategy? 8.Inventory, material requirements planning, and JIT How much inventory of each item should we have? When do we re-order? Table 1.2 (cont.)

21 1 - 21© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Critical Decisions 9.Intermediate and short–term scheduling Are we better off keeping people on the payroll during slowdowns? Which jobs do we perform next? 10.Maintenance How do we build reliability into our processes? Who is responsible for maintenance? Table 1.2 (cont.)

22 1 - 22© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Where are the OM Jobs? Technology/methods Facilities/space utilization Strategic issues Response time People/team development Customer service Quality Cost reduction Inventory reduction Productivity improvement

23 1 - 23© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Opportunities Figure 1.2

24 1 - 24© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Certifications APICS, the American Production and Inventory Control Society American Society of Quality (ASQ) Institute for Supply Management (ISM) Project Management Institute (PMI) Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals Charter Institute of Purchasing and Supply (CIPS)

25 1 - 25© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Significant Events in OM Figure 1.3

26 1 - 26© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Heritage of OM Division of labor (Adam Smith 1776; Charles Babbage 1852) Standardized parts (Whitney 1800) Scientific Management (Taylor 1881) Coordinated assembly line (Ford/ Sorenson 1913) Gantt charts (Gantt 1916) Motion study (Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 1922) Quality control (Shewhart 1924; Deming 1950)

27 1 - 27© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Heritage of OM Computer (Atanasoff 1938) CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957, Navy 1958) Material requirements planning (Orlicky 1960) Computer aided design (CAD 1970) Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975) Baldrige Quality Awards (1980) Computer integrated manufacturing (1990) Globalization (1992) Internet (1995)

28 1 - 28© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Eli Whitney Born 1765; died 1825 In 1798, received government contract to make 10,000 muskets Showed that machine tools could make standardized parts to exact specifications Musket parts could be used in any musket

29 1 - 29© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Frederick W. Taylor Born 1856; died 1915 Known as father of scientific management In 1881, as chief engineer for Midvale Steel, studied how tasks were done Began first motion and time studies Created efficiency principles

30 1 - 30© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Taylors Principles Matching employees to right job Providing the proper training Providing proper work methods and tools Establishing legitimate incentives for work to be accomplished Management Should Take More Responsibility for:

31 1 - 31© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Frank & Lillian Gilbreth Frank ( ); Lillian ( ) Husband-and-wife engineering team Further developed work measurement methods Applied efficiency methods to their home and 12 children! Book & Movie: Cheaper by the Dozen, Bells on Their Toes

32 1 - 32© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Born 1863; died 1947 In 1903, created Ford Motor Company In 1913, first used moving assembly line to make Model T Unfinished product moved by conveyor past work station Paid workers very well for 1911 ($5/day!) Henry Ford

33 1 - 33© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall W. Edwards Deming Born 1900; died 1993 Engineer and physicist Credited with teaching Japan quality control methods in post- WW2 Used statistics to analyze process His methods involve workers in decisions

34 1 - 34© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Contributions From Human factors Industrial engineering Management science Biological science Physical sciences Information technology

35 1 - 35© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall New Challenges in OM Global focus Just-in-time Supply-chain partnering Rapid product development, alliances Mass customization Empowered employees, teamsToFrom Local or national focus Batch shipments Low bid purchasing Lengthy product development Standard products Job specialization

36 1 - 36© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Characteristics of Goods Tangible product Consistent product definition Production usually separate from consumption Can be inventoried Low customer interaction

37 1 - 37© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Characteristics of Service Intangible product Produced and consumed at same time Often unique High customer interaction Inconsistent product definition Often knowledge-based Frequently dispersed

38 1 - 38© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Industry and Services as Percentage of GDP Services Manufacturing Australia Canada China Czech Rep France Germany Hong Kong Japan Mexico Russian Fed South Africa Spain UK US

39 1 - 39© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Goods and Services Automobile Computer Installed carpeting Fast-food meal Restaurant meal/auto repair Hospital care Advertising agency/ investment management Consulting service/ teaching Counseling Percent of Product that is a GoodPercent of Product that is a Service 100% % |||||||||

40 1 - 40© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 120 – 100 – 80 – 60 – 40 – 20 – 0 – ||||||| (est) Employment (millions) Manufacturing and Service Employment Figure 1.4 (A) Manufacturing Service

41 1 - 41© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Manufacturing Employment and Production Figure 1.4 (B) 40 – 30 – 20 – 10 – 0 – ||||||| (est) – – – – – – 25 0 – 0 Employment (millions) Index: 1997 = 100 Index: 1997 = 100 Manufacturing employment (left scale) Industrial production (right scale)

42 1 - 42© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Development of the Service Economy Figure 1.4 (C) United States Canada France Italy Britain Japan W. Germany (est) ||||| Percent

43 1 - 43© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Organizations in Each Sector Service Sector Example % of all Jobs Education, Legal, Medical, other San Diego Zoo, Arnold Palmer Hospital 25.8 Trade (retail, wholesale) Walgreens, Wal-Mart, Nordstroms 14.9 Utilities, Transportation Pacific Gas & Electric, American Airlines 5.2 Professional and Business Services Snelling and Snelling, Waste Management, Inc Table 1.3

44 1 - 44© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Organizations in Each Sector Service Sector Example % of all Jobs Finance, Information, Real Estate Citicorp, American Express, Prudential, Aetna 9.6 Food, Lodging, Entertainment Olive Garden, Motel 6, Walt Disney 8.5 Public Administration U.S., State of Alabama, Cook County 4.6 Total78.8 Table 1.3

45 1 - 45© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Organizations in Each Sector Other Sectors Example % of all Jobs Manufacturing Sector General Electric, Ford, U.S. Steel, Intel 11.2 Construction Sector Bechtel, McDermott8.1 Agriculture Sector King Ranch1.4 Mining SectorHomestake Mining0.5 Total21.2 Table 1.3

46 1 - 46© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Changing Challenges Traditional Approach Reasons for Change Current Challenge Ethics and regulations not at the forefront Public concern over pollution, corruption, child labor, etc. High ethical and social responsibility; increased legal and professional standards Local or national focus Growth of reliable, low cost communication and transportation Global focus, international collaboration Lengthy product development Shorter life cycles; growth of global communication; CAD, Internet Rapid product development; design collaboration Figure 1.5

47 1 - 47© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Changing Challenges Traditional Approach Reasons for Change Current Challenge Low cost production, with little concern for environment; free resources (air, water) ignored Public sensitivity to environment; ISO standard; increasing disposal costs Environmentally sensitive production; green manufacturing; sustainability Low-cost standardized products Rise of consumerism; increased affluence; individualism Mass customization Figure 1.5

48 1 - 48© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Changing Challenges Traditional Approach Reasons for Change Current Challenge Emphasis on specialized, often manual tasks Recognition of the employee's total contribution; knowledge society Empowered employees; enriched jobs In-house production; low-bid purchasing Rapid technological change; increasing competitive forces Supply-chain partnering; joint ventures, alliances Large lot production Shorter product life cycles; increasing need to reduce inventory Just-In-Time performance; lean; continuous improvement Figure 1.5

49 1 - 49© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall New Trends in OM Ethics Global focus Environmentally sensitive production Rapid product development Environmentally sensitive production Mass customization Empowered employees Supply-chain partnering Just-in-time performance

50 1 - 50© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Productivity Challenge Productivity is the ratio of outputs (goods and services) divided by the inputs (resources such as labor and capital) The objective is to improve productivity! Important Note! Production is a measure of output only and not a measure of efficiency

51 1 - 51© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Feedback loop Outputs Goods and services Transformation The U.S. economic system transforms inputs to outputs at about an annual 2.5% increase in productivity per year. The productivity increase is the result of a mix of capital (38% of 2.5%), labor (10% of 2.5%), and management (52% of 2.5%). The Economic System Inputs Labor, capital, management Figure 1.6

52 1 - 52© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Improving Productivity at Starbucks A team of 10 analysts continually look for ways to shave time. Some improvements: Stop requiring signatures on credit card purchases under $25 Saved 8 seconds per transaction Change the size of the ice scoop Saved 14 seconds per drink New espresso machinesSaved 12 seconds per shot

53 1 - 53© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Improving Productivity at Starbucks A team of 10 analysts continually look for ways to shave time. Some improvements: Stop requiring signatures on credit card purchases under $25 Saved 8 seconds per transaction Change the size of the ice scoop Saved 14 seconds per drink New espresso machinesSaved 12 seconds per shot Operations improvements have helped Starbucks increase yearly revenue per outlet by $200,000 to $940,000 in six years. Productivity has improved by 27%, or about 4.5% per year.

54 1 - 54© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Measure of process improvement Represents output relative to input Only through productivity increases can our standard of living improve Productivity Productivity = Units produced Input used

55 1 - 55© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Productivity Calculations Productivity = Units produced Labor-hours used = = 4 units/labor-hour 1, Labor Productivity One resource input single-factor productivity

56 1 - 56© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Multi-Factor Productivity Output Labor + Material + Energy + Capital + Miscellaneous Productivity = Also known as total factor productivity Output and inputs are often expressed in dollars Multiple resource inputs multi-factor productivity

57 1 - 57© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: = Old labor productivity 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs

58 1 - 58© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = Old labor productivity =.25 titles/labor-hr

59 1 - 59© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = Old labor productivity = New labor productivity =.25 titles/labor-hr 14 titles/day 32 labor-hrs

60 1 - 60© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = Old labor productivity =.25 titles/labor-hr 14 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = New labor productivity =.4375 titles/labor-hr

61 1 - 61© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: = Old multifactor productivity 8 titles/day $

62 1 - 62© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day $ = Old multifactor productivity =.0077 titles/dollar

63 1 - 63© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day $ = Old multifactor productivity = New multifactor productivity =.0077 titles/dollar 14 titles/day $

64 1 - 64© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day $ titles/day $ = Old multifactor productivity = New multifactor productivity =.0077 titles/dollar =.0097 titles/dollar

65 1 - 65© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Measurement Problems 1.Quality 1.Quality may change while the quantity of inputs and outputs remains constant 2.External elements 2.External elements may cause an increase or decrease in productivity Precise units Precise units of measure may be lacking

66 1 - 66© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Productivity Variables 1.Labor 1.Labor - contributes about 10% of the annual increase 2.Capital 2.Capital - contributes about 38% of the annual increase 3.Management 3.Management - contributes about 52% of the annual increase

67 1 - 67© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Key Variables for Improved Labor Productivity 1.Basic education appropriate for the labor force 2.Diet of the labor force 3.Social overhead that makes labor available Challenge is in maintaining and enhancing skills in the midst of rapidly changing technology and knowledge

68 1 - 68© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Labor Skills About half of the 17-year-olds in the U.S. cannot correctly answer questions of this type Figure 1.7

69 1 - 69© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Investment and Productivity Percent increase in productivity Percentage investment

70 1 - 70© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Service Productivity 1.Typically labor intensive 2.Frequently focused on unique individual attributes or desires 3.Often an intellectual task performed by professionals 4.Often difficult to mechanize 5.Often difficult to evaluate for quality

71 1 - 71© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Productivity at Taco Bell Improvements: Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment New water and energy saving grills

72 1 - 72© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Productivity at Taco Bell Improvements: Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment New water and energy saving grills Results: Preparation time cut to 8 seconds Management span of control increased from 5 to 30 In-store labor cut by 15 hours/day Stores handle twice the volume with half the labor Conserve 300 million gallons of water and 200 million KwH of electricity each year saving $17 million annually Conserve 300 million gallons of water and 200 million KwH of electricity each year saving $17 million annually

73 1 - 73© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Ethics and Social Responsibility Challenges facing operations managers: Developing and producing safe, quality products Maintaining a clean environment Providing a safe workplace Honoring stakeholder commitments

74 1 - 74© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.


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