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© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 1 – Operations and Productivity PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles of Operations Management, 7e Operations Management, 9e
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 2 Outline Global Company Profile: Hard Rock Cafe What Is Operations Management? Organizing to Produce Goods and Services Why Study OM? What Operations Managers Do How This Book Is Organized
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 3 Outline - Continued The Heritage of Operations Management Operations in the Service Sector Differences between Goods and Services Growth of Services Service Pay Exciting New Trends in Operations Management
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 4 Outline - Continued The Productivity Challenge Productivity Measurement Productivity Variables Productivity and the Service Sector Ethics and Social Responsibility
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 5 Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter you should be able to: 1.Define operations management 2.Explain the distinction between goods and services 3.Explain the difference between production and productivity
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 6 Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter you should be able to: 4.Compute single-factor productivity 5.Compute multifactor productivity 6.Identify the critical variables in enhancing productivity
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 7 What Is Operations Management? Production is the creation of goods and services Operations management (OM) is the set of activities that creates value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 8 Organizing to Produce Goods and Services Essential functions: Marketing – generates demand Production/operations – creates the product Finance/accounting – tracks how well the organization is doing, pays bills, collects the money
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 9 Organizational Charts Operations Ground support equipment Maintenance Ground Operations Facility maintenance Catering Flight Operations Crew scheduling Flying Communications Dispatching Management science Finance/ accounting Accounting Payables Receivables General Ledger Finance Cash control International exchange Airline Figure 1.1(B) Marketing Traffic administration Reservations Schedules Tariffs (pricing) Sales Advertising
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 10 Marketing Sales promotion Advertising Sales Market research Organizational Charts Operations Facilities Construction; maintenance Production and inventory control Scheduling; materials control Quality assurance and control Supply chain management Manufacturing Tooling; fabrication; assembly Design Product development and design Detailed product specifications Industrial engineering Efficient use of machines, space, and personnel Process analysis Development and installation of production tools and equipment Finance/ accounting Disbursements/ credits Receivables Payables General ledger Funds Management Money market International exchange Capital requirements Stock issue Bond issue and recall Manufacturing Figure 1.1(C)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 11 What Operations Managers Do Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Controlling Basic Management Functions
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 12 Ten Critical Decisions Ten Decision AreasChapter(s) Design of goods and services5 Managing quality6, Supplement 6 Process and capacity 7, Supplement 7 design Location strategy8 Layout strategy9 Human resources and 10, Supplement 10 job design Supply chain 11, Supplement 11 management Inventory management12, 14, 16 Scheduling13, 15 Maintenance17 Table 1.2
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 13 The Critical Decisions Design of goods and services What good or service should we offer? How should we design these products and services? Managing quality How do we define quality? Who is responsible for quality? Table 1.2 (cont.)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 14 The Critical Decisions Process and capacity design What process and what capacity will these products require? What equipment and technology is necessary for these processes? Location strategy Where should we put the facility? On what criteria should we base the location decision? Table 1.2 (cont.)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 15 The Critical Decisions Layout strategy How should we arrange the facility? How large must the facility be to meet our plan? Human resources and job design How do we provide a reasonable work environment? How much can we expect our employees to produce? Table 1.2 (cont.)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 16 The Critical Decisions Supply chain management Should we make or buy this component? Who are our suppliers and who can integrate into our e-commerce program? Inventory, material requirements planning, and JIT How much inventory of each item should we have? When do we re-order? Table 1.2 (cont.)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 17 The Critical Decisions Intermediate and short–term scheduling Are we better off keeping people on the payroll during slowdowns? Which jobs do we perform next? Maintenance Who is responsible for maintenance? When do we do maintenance? Table 1.2 (cont.)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 18 Where are the OM Jobs? Technology/methods Facilities/space utilization Strategic issues Response time People/team development Customer service Quality Cost reduction Inventory reduction Productivity improvement
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 19 Contributions From Human factors Industrial engineering Management science Biological science Physical sciences Information technology
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 20 New Challenges in OM Global focus Just-in-time Supply chain partnering Rapid product development, alliances Mass customization Empowered employees, teams ToFrom Local or national focus Batch shipments Low bid purchasing Lengthy product development Standard products Job specialization
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 21 Characteristics of Goods Tangible product Consistent product definition Production usually separate from consumption Can be inventoried Low customer interaction
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 22 Characteristics of Service Intangible product Produced and consumed at same time Often unique High customer interaction Inconsistent product definition Often knowledge-based Frequently dispersed
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 23 Industry and Services as Percentage of GDP ServicesManufacturing AustraliaCanadaChina Czech Rep FranceGermany Hong Kong JapanMexico Russian Fed South Africa SpainUKUS − − − − − − − − − 0 0 −
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 24 Goods Versus Services Table 1.3 Can be resold Can be inventoried Some aspects of quality measurable Selling is distinct from production Product is transportable Site of facility important for cost Often easy to automate Revenue generated primarily from tangible product Attributes of Goods (Tangible Product) Attributes of Services (Intangible Product) Reselling unusual Difficult to inventory Quality difficult to measure Selling is part of service Provider, not product, is often transportable Site of facility important for customer contact Often difficult to automate Revenue generated primarily from the intangible service
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 25 New Trends in OM Global focus Just-in-time performance Supply chain partnering Rapid product development Mass customization Empowered employees Environmentally sensitive production Ethics
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 26 Productivity Challenge Productivity is the ratio of outputs (goods and services) divided by the inputs (resources such as labor and capital) The objective is to improve productivity! Important Note! Production is a measure of output only and not a measure of efficiency
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 27 Feedbackloop Feedback loop Outputs Goods and servicesProcesses The U.S. economic system transforms inputs to outputs at about an annual 2.5% increase in productivity per year. The productivity increase is the result of a mix of capital (38% of 2.5%), labor (10% of 2.5%), and management (52% of 2.5%). The Economic System Inputs Labor, capital, management Figure 1.7
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 28 Improving Productivity at Starbucks A team of 10 analysts continually look for ways to shave time. Some improvements: Stop requiring signatures on credit card purchases under $25 Saved 8 seconds per transaction Change the size of the ice scoop Saved 14 seconds per drink New espresso machines Saved 12 seconds per shot
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 29 Improving Productivity at Starbucks A team of 10 analysts continually look for ways to shave time. Some improvements: Stop requiring signatures on credit card purchases under $25 Saved 8 seconds per transaction Change the size of the ice scoop Saved 14 seconds per drink New espresso machines Saved 12 seconds per shot Operations improvements have helped Starbucks increase yearly revenue per outlet by $200,000 to $940,000 in six years. Productivity has improved by 27%, or about 4.5% per year.
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 30 Measure of process improvement Represents output relative to input Only through productivity increases can our standard of living improve Productivity Productivity = Units produced Input used
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 31 Productivity Calculations Productivity = Units produced Labor-hours used = = 4 units/labor-hour 1, Labor Productivity One resource input single-factor productivity
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 32 Multi-Factor Productivity Output Labor + Material + Energy + Capital + Miscellaneous Productivity = Also known as total factor productivity Output and inputs are often expressed in dollars Multiple resource inputs multi-factor productivity
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 33 Measurement Problems Quality may change while the quantity of inputs and outputs remains constant External elements may cause an increase or decrease in productivity Precise units of measure may be lacking
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 34 Productivity Variables Labor - contributes about 10% of the annual increase Capital - contributes about 38% of the annual increase Management - contributes about 52% of the annual increase
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 35 Key Variables for Improved Labor Productivity Basic education appropriate for the labor force Diet of the labor force Social overhead that makes labor available Maintaining and enhancing skills in the midst of rapidly changing technology and knowledge
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 36 Service Productivity Typically labor intensive Frequently focused on unique individual attributes or desires Often an intellectual task performed by professionals Often difficult to mechanize Often difficult to evaluate for quality
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 37 Productivity at Taco Bell Improvements: Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 38 Productivity at Taco Bell Improvements: Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment Results: Preparation time cut to 8 seconds Management span of control increased from 5 to 30 In-store labor cut by 15 hours/day Stores handle twice the volume with half the labor Fast-food low-cost leader
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 39 Ethics and Social Responsibility Challenges facing operations managers: Developing and producing safe, quality products Maintaining a clean environment Providing a safe workplace Honoring community commitments
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