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9 Broadcast Journalism © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain the responsibility broadcast journalists.

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Presentation on theme: "9 Broadcast Journalism © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain the responsibility broadcast journalists."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 9 Broadcast Journalism

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain the responsibility broadcast journalists have to the viewing public. Identify news programs as mainstream, non-mainstream, or tabloid. Recall the news elements used to judge the newsworthiness of a story. Recognize the different story types broadcast during a newscast. Objectives

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain the elements of a package. Identify the various abbreviations used on a newscast script. Recall the workflow and responsibilities involved in a typical day in a newsroom. Objectives

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Broadcast Journalism Classes Students often create news program Often modeled after real-world broadcast newsrooms Are career training classes

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. News TV news has awesome responsibility to public Audiences generally accept TV news as fact Information People want to know People should know People need to know

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Types of News Mainstream media Broadcast network news 24-hour cable Non-mainstream media ESPN, MTV, PAX TV Tabloid media Comedy News

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Gray News Biased Commentary Clearly presents particular point of view Should be announced clearly as commentary

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Professional News Presents facts only Allows audience to form their own opinions

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 24-Hour Cable News Programming Public needs to realize: Not all programming is news Most programming is talk show, commentary, and opinion Some programming is hard newshard news Viewers responsible for determining difference between news and opinion

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. First Amendment Guarantees freedom of the press Government may not restrict press Corporations that own press media outlets may restrict their own companies

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Discuss the following concept: Just because you have the right to do a story does not mean you should do the story. Discussion

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Discuss aloud what each section of the Code of Ethics means. Discussion

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. News Judgment News programs have finite time limit Not censorshipreality Decisions on newsworthiness of stories are made by news director and producer Instructors often begin term functioning as news directors in order to model behavior they are teaching

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Newsworthy Elements Often, but not always, hard news Proximity Timeliness Prominence Consequences Conflict Often, but not always, soft news Unusualness Emotion Achievement Contrast

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Give examples for each element of, often, but not always, hard news: Proximity; timeliness; prominence; consequences; conflict Give examples for each element of, often, but not always, hard news: Unusualness; emotion; achievement; contrast Discussion

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. EvergreenEvergreen Story Example: Family that lost everything in tornado is helped by entire community in rebuilding and furnishing their home

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Ethically Funding the News Salaries, overhead, facilities, and equipment are major expenses of operating news organization Funds to cover these expenses come from advertising revenue News operation must be free to do stories on anyone and anything, including advertisers

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. IFB Producer can feed breaking news directly to anchor

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Types of Stories Reader VO VO-SOT SOT Sound bite Package

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Packages Completely edited and includes intro and outro minutes Extended package: 2-4 minutesExtended package Documentary: 6-10 minutes News package: covers hard newsNews package

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Soft NewsSoft News Packages News feature package Also called feature package or feature Personality feature

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Stand-upStand-up Not an opportunity for reporter to get face time Purpose is to establish that news team was at actual location Stand-up is story-telling tool If reporter takes part in story, audience feels as if it also participates in story

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Ethical Editing Problem: talent speaks too much to fit into 90-second story TRT slot in programTRT Solution: Edit the speech Ethics: Edit as necessary but do not alter content or context of message

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Live Shot Requires technology to enable field reporter to transmit live from location Conversation between field reporter and studio anchor is possible Live is usually placed in graphic on screen At conclusion of story, reporter uses standard outro to shift attention back to studio anchoroutro

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Investigative Reporting Difficult and complex Often a search for wrong-doing May be physically or legally dangerous Privacy, trespass, and defamation issues abound Executive-level approval required before even starting Use of hidden camera = many legal issues

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Important Concept Reporter cannot break law in the process of getting a story without risking getting into legal jeopardy

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Newscast Scripting Many stations use scripting software to pre- format scripts when reporters write stories Generally scripts are in two-column format Patter is not scripted and is used to fill extra seconds in the programPatter

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. On-Air Appearance Newscaster credibility affected by: appearance and behavior speech (clarity/enunciation) Newscaster credibility = newscaster employability

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Discuss on-air appearance Why does it matter? Should it matter? Should intended audience be taken into account? What standards should your facility have? Discussion

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Typical Rundown First Draft Hard local news Hard national news Lighter news Sports Weather Arts, entertainment, evergreen filler

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Newsroom Day Reporters come back in to begin writing and editing story to fit TRT requirement Producer indicates on rundown exact length each story must be Typically, each reporter does at least two stories per day

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Newsroom Day (Cont.) During afternoon, late evening anchors and staff arrive and begin planning their newscast Early evening newscast begins, daytime staff ends their workday and evening shift begins

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Media Convergence Journalism–print, Internet, and broadcast are all converging Broadcast journalists are expected to place news content on stations website Reporter must learn to write audio for TV as well as text for Web–two different skills!

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What Do You Think? After audience views news story you broadcast, they should not have any idea of how you, the reporter, feel about the topic. If they cannot figure it out, then you have done your job well.

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. High School Broadcast Journalism Career Page

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is a beat? A specific area (topics or geographic location) regularly covered by a reporter. Review Question

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Why is it a good idea to always have several evergreen stories available? If something happens and the newscast is shorter than the time slot, you can go to the files and find an evergreen story to fill the hole. Review Question

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is the purpose of the IFB? So the producer can break into the newscast and feed breaking news directly to the anchor who will repeat every word exactly as the producer says it. Review Question

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is the difference between a reader and a VO? A reader is literally read off the teleprompter by the anchor. The audience sees nothing but the anchor speaking. A VO has B-roll of the subject of the story on the screen and the audience hears, but does not see, the anchor tell the story. Review Question

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What does the change from VO to VO-SOT do to the story? Somewhere in the VO story the B-roll actually is edited so that the audience sees and hears a principal figure in the story begin to speak. Review Question

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What type of media are the following? CNN ESPN TMZ Review Question Mainstream Non-mainstream Tabloid

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. A story that anchor reads from a teleprompter, without video or pictures is called what? A reader Review Question

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. How are news packages and soft news packages alike? How are they different? Both are edited and include intro and outro. News covers hard news, soft covers interesting, but not necessary, information. Review Question

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. beat: A specific area (topics or geographic location) regularly covered by a reporter. evergreen: A story that is appropriate to be broadcast at any time, regardless of season or time of day. extended package: A 2–4 minute story that is shot and edited before a newscast and typically provides more in- depth coverage of a specific story. Glossary

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. hard news: Type of news story that contains information that viewers need to have immediately; characterized by seriousness and timeliness. IFB: interrupted feedback; a line of communication between the anchors and the producer in the control room. An earpiece worn by the anchor is connected to the producers headset, allowing the producer to speak directly to an anchor while the anchor is on the air live. Glossary

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. live shot: A news story that is introduced by an anchor and delivered through a live feed by a reporter on location. mainstream media: Television news programming that is expected to provide a fair and unbiased presentation of facts, without any particular viewpoint. news: Information people want to know, information they should know, or information they need to know. Glossary

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. news feature package: A package covering soft news stories that are connected to current events. Also called a feature package or feature. news package: A package that covers hard news/current events. non-mainstream media: Television news programming that is expected to express a particular point of view. Glossary

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. outro: The salutation at the end of a story; opposite of an intro. package: A story that is about 1 1/2–2 minutes in length, contains its own intro and outro, is edited, and can be inserted into a live program at any time the producer chooses. patter: The spontaneous on-air conversation or small talk between anchors or anchors and reporters. Glossary

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. personality feature: Type of human interest story that focuses on one person and why that person is newsworthy. reader: A story, written by a reporter or anchor, that does not have video to accompany the story. The anchor simply reads the text on the teleprompter aloud for the viewing audience to hear. rundown: The organization of stories and sequence of a newscast in written form. Glossary

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. soft news: Type of news story that contains information viewers may find interesting, but not necessarily information they need to know. SOT: Sound on tape; footage of a principal player connected to a story, which includes voice/audio that supports the story. Also called sound bite. Glossary

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. stand-up: Footage in a package that depicts a reporter standing in front of the camera, speaking directly to the viewers from the location of a story. tabloid media: Television news programming that stretches and exaggerates facts by dealing with sensational stories; generally considered more entertainment than news. Glossary

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. TRT: Total running time; industry abbreviation. VO: Voiceover; a type of story that incorporates B-roll video rolled-in from the control room, in addition to the script read by the anchor. Glossary

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. VO-SOT: Voiceover-sound on tape; a type of story in which the audience sees B-roll video and hears both the anchor reading from the teleprompter and footage of a comment from a principal player in the story. Glossary


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