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8 Scriptwriting. 8 Scriptwriting Objectives Identify each of the program formats presented and summarize the unique characteristics of each. Identify.

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Presentation on theme: "8 Scriptwriting. 8 Scriptwriting Objectives Identify each of the program formats presented and summarize the unique characteristics of each. Identify."— Presentation transcript:


2 8 Scriptwriting

3 Objectives Identify each of the program formats presented and summarize the unique characteristics of each. Identify the expected components of a program proposal. Explain the format of a program treatment. Recall the elements in each type of script used in television production.

4 Program Formats Lecture, BTF (big talking face), talking head
Lecture demonstration Panel discussion Interview Documentary Newscast Magazine Drama Public service announcement (PSA)/Ad Music video

5 Lecture Also known as BTF (big talking face) or talking head
Lack of camera movement & talent action Dull, uninteresting Lowest viewer retention of information Amateurish Script may be simple outline

6 Lecture/Demonstration
More interesting to watch Includes action and many props Examples: Cooking show Infomercials How-to shows Script will need more detail due to multiple cameras or action

7 Panel Discussion Often called “talk shows”
Program driven by content–not action Too many people on panel creates shot too wide for shape of the screen Script may be outlined with just topics for moderator to throw out to the panel

8 Interview Often shot with only one camera
Shoot interviewee answering questions Later shoot interviewer asking questions Shoot nod shots Edit them together to make seamless conversation Script may be just questions, or there may be no script at all

9 Documentary Can take many forms
Topic researched, information outlined, script written Shot sheet developed to support audio Audience interest can vary with topic Script generally is detailed because the entire documentary is pre-planned

10 Newscast Each story produced by different people
Each story may have unique style of script

11 Magazine Also collection of stories produced by several production teams Stories are not news or timely Stories are usually longer than those in newscasts “60 Minutes” generally has four stories in 60 minutes

12 Drama Includes comedy and drama Generally includes storyboards
Nearly all require completely detailed scripts for actors to memorize

13 Public Service Announcement (PSA)
Scripts are fully detailed with storyboards

14 Music Video Concert style music video Story style music video Hybrid

15 Visualization Taking daydream or vision from your head, then:
Transcribing it to paper (now others can join in your vision) Converting the vision to reality on screen

16 Program Proposal Basic idea of program Applicable program format
Message to be imparted to audience Program’s intended audience Budget considerations Shooting location considerations Rough program shooting schedule

17 Storyboards Resemble comic books
Rough sketches to indicate viewfinder images to help plan shots Rough scripting under sketch Computer programs available to do storyboards that allow “click and drag” of picture elements—no actual drawing ability is necessary!

18 Storyboards (Cont.)

19 Basic Outline for Program Formats
Dramas, lectures, lecture demonstrations, and documentaries use the same basic outline Each major point/event on different line As few words as possible Each line indicates location No dialogue

20 Basic Outline for Program Formats (Cont.)

21 Outline for Panel Discussion or Interview
List at least 20 questions that do not elicit one word or short answers Interviewer/host may stray from list but list provides “starters” if conversation lags Interviewer/host is free to initiate questions and follow-ups that are not on list Not every question must be asked

22 Music Video Outline Concert style does not need outline
Story style and hybrid style need outline similar to drama outline

23 Music Video Warning! Pay particular attention to copyright law–see Chapters 12 and 13 Lyrics of some songs may cause issues with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) if broadcast over public airwaves Your school or facility may also have regulations on lyrics

24 Expanding Outline Take each line of the basic outline and try to divide it into 5-7 smaller detail lines If each line is a scene, expand to 5-7 more details (sub-topics) that must occur in the scene

25 Expanding Outline (Cont.)

26 Treatment Not all programs will require treatment
Usually drama, music video story style, PSA Entire outline is converted to paragraph-style narrative with little or no dialogue Each scene is a complete paragraph After reading treatment, a person understands program’s story

27 The Script Television scripts are in two columns
Left column contains video and camera notes Right column contains audio and stage directions for performers Use word processor if possible Save every revision as a different file

28 The Script (Cont.) Break up video or audio however necessary in order to make them line up with each other Do not write/print on both sides of page! In video column, use abbreviations as much as possible For example: ZO-2S Brian/Mike

29 Discussion What are the advantages of using a word processor to write scripts? Easy to revise without rewriting entire pages, easy to keep revisions, easy to read, easy to lay out so both columns remain even When pages are in a 3-ring binder the back of the previous page is on the left side of the binder – a perfect place to place notes for the current page on the right side of the binder. Also, when revisions are needed, it prevents 2 pages from having to be reprinted if writing is only on one side of the page. Finally, it is easier to read.

30 Discussion Why should you not write on both sides of a page?

31 Types of Scripts Word-for-word script Outline script Format script

32 Word-for-Word Script Used for drama, music video, lecture, documentary, PSA/Ad Audio column written first, contains audio and stage direction for actors Visualize camera angles and switches Content specialist verifies Then video column written, contains video/camera direction, sound cues, and lighting cues Plan to change shots about every seven seconds

33 Outline Script Used for lecture/demonstration, some interviews, how-to shows For interviews: list of questions For lecture/demo: major points of process listed Plan to change shots about every seven seconds This requires many shots of B-roll

34 Format Script Used for panel discussions, talk shows, game shows, and other programs where format does not change from episode to episode Lines and talent change but from production point of view, each show is nearly identical

35 Discussion What are the three types of scripts? Give an example of a program currently on the air that would use this type of script. Word for Word – Law and Order. Outline Script – Any cooking show, such as Iron Chef. Format Script – The Tonight Show

36 Writing Style Write the way people speak Use informal language
Do not use formal language with complex sentences Use shorter sentences than those written for print

37 Montage Use the shot sheet example from the montage section of the chapter just before “Wrapping Up”

38 Career Page Screenwriters Federation of America
Formerly Screenwriters Guild of America Training opportunities, networking, feedback, and mutual aid for screenwriters

39 Review Question Given the steps needed to write a script (research, outline, expanded outline, treatment, script) why should executive producer approval be obtained before moving to the next step? Because e.p. may not approve up to this point, causing scriptwriter to do re-write before he can proceed. Because, the Exec. Prod. may have input which if you go ahead without his approval may cause you to do a tremendous amount of work that the producer does not approve of. The scriptwriter will have wasted much energy and emotion. Scriptwriting is an emotional activity and once someone has done much writing there is a strong emotional reluctance to let go of it and move into another direction. Take things one step at a time.

40 Review Question Name the 10 program formats. Lecture, lecture/demonstration, panel discussion, interview, documentary, newscast, magazine, drama, PSA/Ad, music video

41 Review Question What are the three kinds of music videos? Concert style, story style, hybrid

42 Review Question What information should be in a program proposal? Basic idea, format, message, audience, budget, locations, rough shooting schedule

43 Glossary actors: Individuals who participate in a drama or comedy program, performing as someone or something other than themselves. concert style music video: A type of music video in which the audience sees the band perform the music that is heard.

44 Glossary documentary: A program format that is essentially a research paper for television. The audio in the program may include both on-camera and off-camera narration. The video footage used in the program is determined by the topic research and should support the audio of the program.

45 Glossary drama: A program format that includes both dramas and comedies and requires actors to portray someone or something other than themselves. format script: A program script that is very brief and used for programs in which the order of events is predetermined and the sequence of each episode is consistent.

46 Glossary interview: A program format that involves a conversation between an interviewer and an interviewee. lecture: A program format in which the talent speaks and the camera shoots almost entirely in a medium close-up. Also known as big talking face (BTF) and talking head.

47 Glossary lecture/demonstration: A program format that provides action and makes use of props in addition to lecture. Examples of this format include cooking shows, how-to shows, and infomercials. magazine: A program format comprised of feature packages, each addressing a different story for seven to eleven minutes.

48 Glossary montage: A production device that allows a gradual change in a relationship or a lengthy time passage to occur in a very short amount of screen time by showing a series of silent shots accompanied by music. music video: A program format in which all or most of the audio is a song. newscast: A program format that is a collection of individual news stories.

49 Glossary nod shots: A cutaway shot often used in interview programs and usually recorded after the interviewee has left the set. In a nod shot, the interviewer does not say anything, but simply “nods” naturally as if listening to the answer to a question.

50 Glossary outline script: A program script that usually has a word-for-word introduction and conclusion, but an outline for the body of the script. panel discussion: A program format that presents a group of people gathered to discuss topics of interest. Daytime talk shows are an example of this format.

51 Glossary program proposal: A document created by the scriptwriter that contains general information about the program, including the basic idea, applicable format, message to be imparted to the audience, intended audience, budget considerations, shooting location considerations, and rough shooting schedule. Used to present the program to the executive producer to obtain permission and funding for the production.

52 Glossary public service announcement (PSA): A program that is 30 or 60 seconds in length and aims to inform the public or to convince the public to do (or not to do) something in the interest of common good. script: An entire program committed to paper, including dialog, music, camera angles, stage direction, camera direction, and computer graphics (CG) notations.

53 Glossary story style music video: A type of music video in which the audience hears the music, but does not see the band perform. Instead, actors act out a story line that is supported by the lyrics of the song. storyboards: Sketches that portray the way the image on television should look in the finished program.

54 Glossary treatment: A narrative written from a program outline that tells the program’s story in paragraph form. visualization: The ability to mentally picture the finished program. word-for-word script: A program script in which every word spoken by the talent is written out.

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