Presentation on theme: "8 Scriptwriting. 8 Scriptwriting Objectives Identify each of the program formats presented and summarize the unique characteristics of each. Identify."— Presentation transcript:
3 ObjectivesIdentify each of the program formats presented and summarize the unique characteristics of each.Identify the expected components of a program proposal.Explain the format of a program treatment.Recall the elements in each type of script used in television production.
4 Program Formats Lecture, BTF (big talking face), talking head Lecture demonstrationPanel discussionInterviewDocumentaryNewscastMagazineDramaPublic service announcement (PSA)/AdMusic video
5 Lecture Also known as BTF (big talking face) or talking head Lack of camera movement & talent actionDull, uninterestingLowest viewer retention of informationAmateurishScript may be simple outline
6 Lecture/Demonstration More interesting to watchIncludes action and many propsExamples:Cooking showInfomercialsHow-to showsScript will need more detail due to multiple cameras or action
7 Panel Discussion Often called “talk shows” Program driven by content–not actionToo many people on panel creates shot too wide for shape of the screenScript may be outlined with just topics for moderator to throw out to the panel
8 Interview Often shot with only one camera Shoot interviewee answering questionsLater shoot interviewer asking questionsShoot nod shotsEdit them together to make seamless conversationScript may be just questions, or there may be no script at all
9 Documentary Can take many forms Topic researched, information outlined, script writtenShot sheet developed to support audioAudience interest can vary with topicScript generally is detailed because the entire documentary is pre-planned
10 Newscast Each story produced by different people Each story may have unique style of script
11 MagazineAlso collection of stories produced by several production teamsStories are not news or timelyStories are usually longer than those in newscasts“60 Minutes” generally has four stories in 60 minutes
12 Drama Includes comedy and drama Generally includes storyboards Nearly all require completely detailed scripts for actors to memorize
13 Public Service Announcement (PSA) Scripts are fully detailed with storyboards
14 Music VideoConcert style music videoStory style music videoHybrid
15 Visualization Taking daydream or vision from your head, then: Transcribing it to paper (now others can join in your vision)Converting the vision to reality on screen
16 Program Proposal Basic idea of program Applicable program format Message to be imparted to audienceProgram’s intended audienceBudget considerationsShooting location considerationsRough program shooting schedule
17 Storyboards Resemble comic books Rough sketches to indicate viewfinder images to help plan shotsRough scripting under sketchComputer programs available to do storyboards that allow “click and drag” of picture elements—no actual drawing ability is necessary!
19 Basic Outline for Program Formats Dramas, lectures, lecture demonstrations, and documentaries use the same basic outlineEach major point/event on different lineAs few words as possibleEach line indicates locationNo dialogue
21 Outline for Panel Discussion or Interview List at least 20 questions that do not elicit one word or short answersInterviewer/host may stray from list but list provides “starters” if conversation lagsInterviewer/host is free to initiate questions and follow-ups that are not on listNot every question must be asked
22 Music Video Outline Concert style does not need outline Story style and hybrid style need outline similar to drama outline
23 Music Video Warning!Pay particular attention to copyright law–see Chapters 12 and 13Lyrics of some songs may cause issues with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) if broadcast over public airwavesYour school or facility may also have regulations on lyrics
24 Expanding OutlineTake each line of the basic outline and try to divide it into 5-7 smaller detail linesIf each line is a scene, expand to 5-7 more details (sub-topics) that must occur in the scene
26 Treatment Not all programs will require treatment Usually drama, music video story style, PSAEntire outline is converted to paragraph-style narrative with little or no dialogueEach scene is a complete paragraphAfter reading treatment, a person understands program’s story
27 The Script Television scripts are in two columns Left column contains video and camera notesRight column contains audio and stage directions for performersUse word processor if possibleSave every revision as a different file
28 The Script (Cont.)Break up video or audio however necessary in order to make them line up with each otherDo not write/print on both sides of page!In video column, use abbreviations as much as possibleFor example: ZO-2S Brian/Mike
29 DiscussionWhat are the advantages of using a word processor to write scripts?Easy to revise without rewriting entire pages, easy to keep revisions, easy to read, easy to lay out so both columns remain evenWhen pages are in a 3-ring binder the back of the previous page is on the left side of the binder – a perfect place to place notes for the current page on the right side of the binder. Also, when revisions are needed, it prevents 2 pages from having to be reprinted if writing is only on one side of the page. Finally, it is easier to read.
30 DiscussionWhy should you not write on both sides of a page?
31 Types of ScriptsWord-for-word scriptOutline scriptFormat script
32 Word-for-Word ScriptUsed for drama, music video, lecture, documentary, PSA/AdAudio column written first, contains audio and stage direction for actorsVisualize camera angles and switchesContent specialist verifiesThen video column written, contains video/camera direction, sound cues, and lighting cuesPlan to change shots about every seven seconds
33 Outline ScriptUsed for lecture/demonstration, some interviews, how-to showsFor interviews: list of questionsFor lecture/demo: major points of process listedPlan to change shots about every seven secondsThis requires many shots of B-roll
34 Format ScriptUsed for panel discussions, talk shows, game shows, and other programs where format does not change from episode to episodeLines and talent change but from production point of view, each show is nearly identical
35 DiscussionWhat are the three types of scripts? Give an example of a program currently on the air that would use this type of script.Word for Word – Law and Order. Outline Script – Any cooking show, such as Iron Chef. Format Script – The Tonight Show
36 Writing Style Write the way people speak Use informal language Do not use formal language with complex sentencesUse shorter sentences than those written for print
37 MontageUse the shot sheet example from the montage section of the chapter just before “Wrapping Up”
38 Career Page Screenwriters Federation of America Formerly Screenwriters Guild of AmericaTraining opportunities, networking, feedback, and mutual aid for screenwriters
39 Review QuestionGiven the steps needed to write a script (research, outline, expanded outline, treatment, script) why should executive producer approval be obtained before moving to the next step? Because e.p. may not approve up to this point, causing scriptwriter to do re-write before he can proceed.Because, the Exec. Prod. may have input which if you go ahead without his approval may cause you to do a tremendous amount of work that the producer does not approve of. The scriptwriter will have wasted much energy and emotion. Scriptwriting is an emotional activity and once someone has done much writing there is a strong emotional reluctance to let go of it and move into another direction. Take things one step at a time.
40 Review QuestionName the 10 program formats. Lecture, lecture/demonstration, panel discussion, interview, documentary, newscast, magazine, drama, PSA/Ad, music video
41 Review QuestionWhat are the three kinds of music videos? Concert style, story style, hybrid
42 Review QuestionWhat information should be in a program proposal? Basic idea, format, message, audience, budget, locations, rough shooting schedule
43 Glossaryactors: Individuals who participate in a drama or comedy program, performing as someone or something other than themselves.concert style music video: A type of music video in which the audience sees the band perform the music that is heard.
44 Glossarydocumentary: A program format that is essentially a research paper for television. The audio in the program may include both on-camera and off-camera narration. The video footage used in the program is determined by the topic research and should support the audio of the program.
45 Glossarydrama: A program format that includes both dramas and comedies and requires actors to portray someone or something other than themselves.format script: A program script that is very brief and used for programs in which the order of events is predetermined and the sequence of each episode is consistent.
46 Glossaryinterview: A program format that involves a conversation between an interviewer and an interviewee.lecture: A program format in which the talent speaks and the camera shoots almost entirely in a medium close-up. Also known as big talking face (BTF) and talking head.
47 Glossarylecture/demonstration: A program format that provides action and makes use of props in addition to lecture. Examples of this format include cooking shows, how-to shows, and infomercials.magazine: A program format comprised of feature packages, each addressing a different story for seven to eleven minutes.
48 Glossarymontage: A production device that allows a gradual change in a relationship or a lengthy time passage to occur in a very short amount of screen time by showing a series of silent shots accompanied by music.music video: A program format in which all or most of the audio is a song.newscast: A program format that is a collection of individual news stories.
49 Glossarynod shots: A cutaway shot often used in interview programs and usually recorded after the interviewee has left the set. In a nod shot, the interviewer does not say anything, but simply “nods” naturally as if listening to the answer to a question.
50 Glossaryoutline script: A program script that usually has a word-for-word introduction and conclusion, but an outline for the body of the script.panel discussion: A program format that presents a group of people gathered to discuss topics of interest. Daytime talk shows are an example of this format.
51 Glossaryprogram proposal: A document created by the scriptwriter that contains general information about the program, including the basic idea, applicable format, message to be imparted to the audience, intended audience, budget considerations, shooting location considerations, and rough shooting schedule. Used to present the program to the executive producer to obtain permission and funding for the production.
52 Glossarypublic service announcement (PSA): A program that is 30 or 60 seconds in length and aims to inform the public or to convince the public to do (or not to do) something in the interest of common good.script: An entire program committed to paper, including dialog, music, camera angles, stage direction, camera direction, and computer graphics (CG) notations.
53 Glossarystory style music video: A type of music video in which the audience hears the music, but does not see the band perform. Instead, actors act out a story line that is supported by the lyrics of the song.storyboards: Sketches that portray the way the image on television should look in the finished program.
54 Glossarytreatment: A narrative written from a program outline that tells the program’s story in paragraph form.visualization: The ability to mentally picture the finished program.word-for-word script: A program script in which every word spoken by the talent is written out.
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