ALWD Rule 33 – Video and Visual Recordings and Broadcasts
Applicability Films Motion Pictures Broadcasts Television Shows Television Series Videotapes Filmstrips Slide Shows
Rule 33 – Components of a Full Citation Nonepisodic (such as a movie) –Title (Recorder or producer date) (type of recording). –First Monday in October (Paramount 1981) (motion picture). Episodic (such as a television series) –Title, Episode title (Recorder or producer exact date) (type of recording). –Ally McBeal, They Eat Horses, Dont They? (Fox Broad. Co. May 31, 1999) (TV series)
Rules 33.1(a) – Titles Italicize the first title (but not the comma that follows the first title). If you are dealing with a program that is episodic, the first title should be that of the program and not the particular episode. Remember to follow Rule 3 on capitalization.
Rule 33.1(b) – Episodes The episode title, if any, follows the program title. Use ordinary type and enclose in quotation marks. –The Practice, Trench Work (ABC Nov. 15, 1999) (TV series). Do not make up an episode title if none exists.
Rule 33.1(c) – Subdivisions If the cited source has subdivisions, such as scene numbers from a DVD, you may include that information after the episode information or, if no episode, after the title. –The Castle scene 5 (Miramax Home Ent. 2005) (2005).
Rule 33.1(d) – Producer/ Recorder Include the name of the person or company that produced the recording. –Use the abbreviations in Appendix 3. –Also use common sense abbreviations, such as ABC, CBS, NBC. Place the producers name in the date parenthetical.
Rule 33.1(e)(1) – Date/ Nonepisodic Commercial, nonepisodic recording = just the year. Noncommercial, nonepisodic recording = exact date (month day, year). –Remember to abbreviate the month per Appendix 3. Re-release: You may include information about both releases or just the version cited.
Rule 33.1(e)(2) – Date/ Episodic If you cite a particular episode, include the exact date of the broadcast or release. –The exact date includes the month (abbreviate per Appendix 3), day, and year. If you cite an entire series, include the span of dates during which the series originally aired. –(NBC 2001–2004). –(ABC 1999–present).
Rule 33.1(f) – Type of Recording In a separate parenthetical, describe the type of recording in a parenthetical. –Examples: (motion picture). (TV series). (TV broadcast). (videotape). (DVD). –You can use other descriptive terms.
Rule 33.1(g) – Transcript Information If a transcript of the recording is available, you may include the pinpoint reference (Rule 5.2) after the title. Also indicate where or how the readers might obtain a transcript of the broadcast. –60 Minutes, Readin, Writin & Commercials 14 –15 (CBS Oct. 10, 1993) (TV broadcast, transcript available from Burrelles Info. Servs., vol. XXVI, no. 4).
Rule 33.2 – Short Citations for Video and Visual Recordings and Broadcasts Use id. if id. is appropriate. If id. is not appropriate, use the following format: Title, supra n. 3. –Ally McBeal, supra n. 3.
Applicability Records Cassettes or other tapes Compact Discs Digital Video Discs High Definition CDs Minidisks Super audio CD Master Tapes
Rule 34: Components of a Full Citation – Entire Recordings Performer or Composer, Title (Recorder Date) (type of recording).
Rule 34.1(a) – Performer or Composer Provide the full name of the performer or composer. Follow ALWD Rule 22.1(a) for books. –A full name includes designations such as Jr. and II. –Separate two performers with an ampersand (&). –If there are three performers, the first two are separated by a comma, and the last two are separated by an ampersand. Whitney Houston, Athena Cage & Mariah Carey, Place a comma after the performer or composer.
Rule 34 – Title Provide the title and any subtitles. Use italics. Follow Rule 3 for capitalization.
Rule 34.1(c) – Recorder Follow Rule 33.1(c). Abbreviate any words per Appendix 3. Included in the date parenthetical.
Rules 34.1(d), (e) – Date and Type of Recording For an entire recording, include the year for commercial recordings and the exact date for noncommercial recordings (refer to Rule 33.1(e)). In a parenthetical separate from the date parenthetical, describe the type of recording. Examples: –(CD). –(DVD). –(45 rpm L.P.). –(cassette tape).
Rule 34.2 – Full Citation Format for a Single Work in a Collection Components: –Performer or Composer. –Title of Shorter Work, –in –Title of Collection –(Recorder Date) –(type of recording)
Rule 34.2 – Example Eric Clapton, Further on up the Road, in Music from the Motion Picture City of Angels (Warner Bros. 1998) (CD).
Rule 34.3 – Additional Information You may include any information that further describes the recording or that would assist the reader – in a parenthetical. Joseph Silverstein, Vivaldi: The Four Seasons (Telarc 1990) (CD) (with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Seiji Ozawa).
Rule 34.4 – Short Citations Entire Recordings –Use id. if id. is appropriate. –If id. is not appropriate, use the following format found in Rule 22.2(c): Performers last name, supra n. 5. Single Works in a Collection –Use id. if id. is appropriate. Id. refers to the shorter work, not the larger work. –If id. is not appropriate, use the following format found in Rule 22.3(b)(2): Last name of the performer of the shorter work, supra n. 6. Example: Clapton, supra n. 6.