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University TENAGA Nasional Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Dr. HABEEB ALANI Office: BN-Block, Level-3, Room-088 Ext.

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Presentation on theme: "University TENAGA Nasional Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Dr. HABEEB ALANI Office: BN-Block, Level-3, Room-088 Ext."— Presentation transcript:

1 University TENAGA Nasional Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Dr. HABEEB ALANI Office: BN-Block, Level-3, Room Ext. No.: 7292

2 University TENAGA Nasional U niversity TENAGA National College Of Engineering Mechanical Department Academic Year – Lecture Note Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI

3 University TENAGA Nasional Introduction To Manufacturing and Manufacturing Systems Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI

4 University TENAGA Nasional Japanese sword reworked for hard and soft metal parts Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI

5 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Space Shuttle

6 University TENAGA Nasional Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI The Transistor

7 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Everyday products

8 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Manufacturing derived from: Manufacturing (derived from Latin) = manus (hand) + factus (made) = made by hand

9 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI M anufacturing is an industrial activity that converts raw materials to useful products by the means of machines. Definition of Manufacturing:

10 University TENAGA Nasional Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Materials Development of Manufacturing depends on: Machine-Tools Computer-aided Design (CAD)& Computer-aided mfg (CAM). Robotics ElectronicsElectronics

11 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Evolution of the Enterprise Evolution Steps: Hand Tool Animals Water Power Steam Engines Electrical Motors

12 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI The MFG System: INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

13 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Customer Demand Material Money Energy HR Education R & D INPUT

14 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI PROCESS Design Production Management

15 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI OUTPUT Consumer Goods Capital Goods Quality Cost Effectiveness

16 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI ` Money - Working Capital (Money for employee) -Fixed Capital (For machine tools and buildings) INPUT

17 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Energy - Electricity To run the machines - Compressed air To run the pneumatic systems and clean machines and products - Steam To run the turbines and utilized in produce of polystyrene (Expansion OP.) - Gas To use it in Furness, welding operations and boilers. INPUT

18 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI - Creating plans for new products -Lowering the product cost at maintained high quality Design PROCESS

19 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI - Designated at the design stage - Machine tools types PROCESS Production - Machining processes - People are selected at the design stage

20 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Goods - Consumers goods: People use them (Food, Cars, ….) OUTPUT Products - Capital goods: Products used to make other consumer goods (Machine tools, Plant, ….)

21 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI The Classification of basic Manufacturing Mass production 1-2 Moderate Job-lot abc

22 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Mass Production Features: - Goods are produced at a high volume for considerable period of time ( > parts per year). - Machine are not flexible (They are not able to produce other types of products). - Products of this type of mfg are the cheapest. a

23 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Moderate production Features: - Variable products (depends on the sale order and the market demand) (2, ,000 parts per year). - Multipurpose machine tools and CNC machine tools are usually used in this type of mfg. - Product Ex.: Tools, Moulds, Radio transmitters. b

24 University TENAGA Nasional Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Job-lot production Features: - The plant does not any specific type of products but it is able to produce any type of product that the market is in need of. - Products move in lots between mfg processes ( parts per lot). - Machine are more flexible and universal. c - Product Ex: Airplanes, Automobile parts, and Plastic products.

25 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Organization for Manufacturing -A plant needs an affective organizing method for manufacturing in order to manage its resources / Employees Money Power Materials Machines. *A good mfg strategy is needed. See table 1.1 (Evolution of strategy mfg sys

26 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI C oncurrent Engineering CE -It is a philosophy that promotes interactive design and manufacturing efforts to develop product and processes simultaneously. CE is not an enginee- ring discipline. - CE Objective: Optimizing the use of company resources and reducing time to market cycle.

27 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI G eneral CE phases for a new project: Technology and concept development: Definition of customer requirement implementation. Assessment of primary alternatives processes. Development of required resources. Preparation of product plan. a b c d Ph.-1

28 University TENAGA Nasional Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI P roduct and Process Development and Prototype validation -CE Function: Product improvement for assembly and mfg Development the mfg and assembly processes Establish baseline process technology Establish program goals and risk-reduction plans freezing a b c d Ph.-2 This is the phase in which the CE team will

29 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Cont…… Generally other project elements are addressed I this phase, such as financial business plans, product concept demonstration, freezing of engineering content, and final project approval. Note: Ph.-2

30 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Process Validation and Product Design Confirmation : The Production process and methods are finalized Simulation and pilot runs are conducted to test critical steps Machine and equipment are validated for production readiness, quality and performance a b c Ph.-3 This is the execution phase where

31 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Production and continuous improvement : - T his face is the Acceleration of production floor into Full rated capacity. This means: Attaining high product quality at the lowest costs. Ph.-4

32 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Design, Material and Production 1-3 -A ccording to the existing machine tools and the designed product we choose the raw materials. On the other hands, according to the existing materials and required quality we choose the machine tools.

33 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI - I n order to attain a high production rate with a low labor cost, Automatic features have been built gradually in different machine tools. Nowadays we deal with fully automatic machine tools and computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). But the problem is that maintenance of such automatic machines is very expensive. - Efficiency of production :

34 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI - T he quality and accuracy must be maintained for the whole mfg processes so at the output we produce parts that can be quickly assembled (interchangeable). Cont….. Efficiency of production

35 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI - E conomical production is determined by: A functional simple design that has appropriate quality (no more or less). 1 A material choice that represents the best compromise among physical properties, cost, and machinability. 2 The selection of mfg processes that provide the plant with required quality and accuracy (no more accuracy than necessary) at the lowest possible cost. 3

36 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Materials Engineering Materials Metallic Non-Metallic Ferrous Non-Ferrous Organic Non- Organic

37 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Materials Application Chain P rocessing S tructure P roperties P erformance S election F ield Application * SELECTION is the Critical Step for Technologists.

38 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI S tress & Strain D islocations & Deformation E lasticity & Plasticity E lastic Constants Mechanical Properties

39 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Tests Mechanical Testing Mechanical Properties Strengthening Mechanisms Failure Analysis

40 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Resistivity & Conductivity Electronic-Band Structure Semiconductivity Refraction & Reflection Transmission Electrical Properties

41 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI The Evolution of Materials

42 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: HABEEB ALANI Classes of Materials Basic Metals Ceramics Polymers Advanced Composites Semiconductors Biomaterials

43 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Materials that are normally combinations of "metallic elements". Metals usually are good conductors of heat and electricity. Metals are quite strong but malleable and tend to have a lustrous look when polished Metals

44 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: HABEEB ALANI Ceramic materials developed for gas turbine rotors are used in aircraft and diesel engine parts. Ceramics Ceramics are generally compounds between Metallic and NONmetallic elements and include such compounds as: - Oxides - N itrides - C arbides Typically they are insulating and resistant to high temperatures and harsh environments.

45 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Using advanced polymer materials, organic light emitting diode (OLEDs) displays produce bright, high- contrast display panels with a wide viewing angle. OLED panels are emissive, eliminating the need for the backlight required in display technologies such as liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Plastics Plastics (or polymers) are generally compounds based upon carbon and hydrogen (Organic Compounds). They are very large molecular structures. Usually they are low density and are not stable at high temperatures.

46 University TENAGA Nasional Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Semiconductors SEMIconductors have electrical properties intermediate between Metallic conductors and Ceramic insulators. Also, the electrical properties are strongly dependent upon small amounts of Impurities.

47 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Composites Composites consist of more than one material type. Fiberglass, a combination of glass and a polymer, is an example. Concrete and plywood are other familiar composites. Many new combinations include ceramic fibers in a metal or polymer matrix.

48 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Composites

49 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Composites Graphite Matrix Composite Shaft Liquid Metal FacePlate Golf Clubs Hand bag Ghost airplane

50 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI BioMaterials Materials compatible with an organism (e.g. Humans) that can be used to make implants, prostheses, and surgical instruments. Designed not to provoke rejection by our bodies (skin, blood, bone, etc.), they can be natural (collagen, cellulose, etc.) or synthetic (metallic, alloy, ceramic, plastic, and others). Dental crowns and contact-lenses use biomaterials.

51 University TENAGA Nasional Lecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI KingdomFamilyClassAttributesMember Ceramics Polymers Metals Natural Foams Composites Steels Cu-alloys Al-alloys Ti-alloys Ni-alloys Zn-alloys Materials A material record or properties Density Mechanical props. Thermal props. Electrical props. Optical props. Corrosion props. Supporting information -- specific -- general Structured information Unstructured information Data Organization of Materials

52 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI mount Metallography: to see microstructures metal Steel (Fe-C) Nickel Alloy 242

53 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI The goal of design: To create products that perform their function effectively, safely, at acceptable cost What do we need to know about materials to do this? More than just test data. Test Test data Data capture Stat/Math analysis Design data Successful applications $ Economic analysis and business case Selection of material and process Potential applications Characterization Selection and implementation Materials Information for Design

54 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Next Lecture: Nature And Properties of Materials

55 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI THANK YOU


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