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University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Dr. HABEEB HATTAB HABEEB Office: BN-Block, Level-3, Room- 088

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Presentation on theme: "University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Dr. HABEEB HATTAB HABEEB Office: BN-Block, Level-3, Room- 088"— Presentation transcript:

1 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Dr. HABEEB HATTAB HABEEB Office: BN-Block, Level-3, Room Ext. No.: 7292

2 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI U niversity TENAGA National College Of Engineering Mechanical Department Lecture Note

3 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Introduction To Manufacturing

4 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Japanese sword reworked for hard and soft metal parts

5 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Space Shuttle

6 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI The Transistor

7 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Everyday products

8 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Manufacturing derived from: Manufacturing (derived from Latin) = manus (hand) + factus (made) = made by hand

9 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI M anufacturing is an industrial activity that converts raw materials to useful products by the means of machines. Definition of Manufacturing:

10 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Materials Development of Manufacturing depends on: Machine-Tools Computer-aided Design (CAD)& Computer-aided mfg (CAM). Robotics ElectronicsElectronics

11 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Evolution of the Enterprise Evolution Steps: Hand Tool Animals Water Power Steam Engines Electrical Motors

12 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI The MFG System: INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

13 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Customer Demand Material Money Energy HR Education R & D INPUT

14 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI PROCESS Design Production Management

15 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI OUTPUT Consumer Goods Capital Goods Quality Cost Effectiveness

16 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI ` Money - Working Capital (Money for employee) -Fixed Capital (For machine tools and buildings) INPUT

17 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Energy - Electricity To run the machines - Compressed air To run the pneumatic systems and clean machines and products - Steam To run the turbines and utilized in produce of polystyrene (Expansion OP.) - Gas To use it in Furness, welding operations and boilers. INPUT

18 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI - Creating plans for new products -Lowering the product cost at maintained high quality Design PROCESS

19 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI - Designated at the design stage - Machine tools types PROCESS Production - Machining processes - People are selected at the design stage

20 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Goods - Consumers goods: People use them (Food, Cars, ….) OUTPUT Products - Capital goods: Products used to make other consumer goods (Machine tools, Plant, ….)

21 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI The Classification of basic Manufacturing Mass production 1-2 Moderate Job-lot abc

22 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Mass Production Features: - Goods are produced at a high volume for considerable period of time ( > parts per year). - Machine are not flexible (They are not able to produce other types of products). - Products of this type of mfg are the cheapest. a

23 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Moderate production Features: - Variable products (depends on the sale order and the market demand) (2, ,000 parts per year). - Multipurpose machine tools and CNC machine tools are usually used in this type of mfg. - Product Ex.: Tools, Moulds, Radio transmitters. b

24 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Job-lot production Features: - The plant does not any specific type of products but it is able to produce any type of product that the market is in need of. - Products move in lots between mfg processes ( parts per lot). - Machine are more flexible and universal. c - Product Ex: Airplanes, Automobile parts, and Plastic products.

25 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Organization for Manufacturing -A plant needs an affective organizing method for manufacturing in order to manage its resources / Employees Money Power Materials Machines. *A good mfg strategy is needed

26 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI C oncurrent Engineering CE -It is a philosophy that promotes interactive design and manufacturing efforts to develop product and processes. CE is not an engineering discipline. - CE Objective: Optimizing the use of company resources and reducing time to market cycle.

27 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI G eneral CE phases for a new project: Technology and concept development Ph.-1 P roduct and Process Development and Prototype validation -CE Function Ph.-2 Process Validation and Product Design Confirmation Ph.-3 Production and continuous improvement Ph.-4

28 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Design, Material and Production 1-3 -A ccording to the existing machine tools and the designed product we choose the raw materials. On the other hands, according to the existing materials and required quality we choose the machine tools.

29 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI - I n order to attain a high production rate with a low labor cost, Automatic features have been built gradually in different machine tools. Nowadays we deal with fully automatic machine tools and computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). But the problem is that maintenance of such automatic machines is very expensive. - Efficiency of production :

30 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI - T he quality and accuracy must be maintained for the whole mfg processes so at the output we produce parts that can be quickly assembled (interchangeable). Cont….. Efficiency of production

31 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI - E conomical production is determined by: A functional simple design that has appropriate quality (no more or less). 1 A material choice that represents the best compromise among physical properties, cost, and machinability. 2 The selection of mfg processes that provide the plant with required quality and accuracy (no more accuracy than necessary) at the lowest possible cost. 3

32 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Materials Engineering Materials Metallic Non-Metallic Ferrous Non-Ferrous Organic Non- Organic

33 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Materials Application Chain P rocessing S tructure P roperties P erformance S election F ield Application * SELECTION is the Critical Step for Technologists.

34 S tress & Strain D islocations & Deformation E lasticity & Plasticity University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Mechanical Properties

35 Mechanical Testing Mechanical Properties Strengthening Mechanisms Failure Analysis University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Tests

36 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI The Evolution of Materials

37 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Classes of Materials Basic Metals Ceramics Polymers Advanced Composites Semiconductors Biomaterials

38 Materials that are normally combinations of "metallic elements". Metals usually are good conductors of heat and electricity. Metals are quite strong but malleable and tend to have a lustrous look when polished University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Metals

39 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Ceramic materials developed for gas turbine rotors are used in aircraft and diesel engine parts. Ceramics Ceramics are generally compounds between Metallic and NONmetallic elements and include such compounds as: - Oxides - N itrides - C arbides Typically they are insulating and resistant to high temperatures and harsh environments.

40 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Using advanced polymer materials, organic light emitting diode (OLEDs) displays produce bright, high-contrast display panels with a wide viewing angle. OLED panels are emissive, eliminating the need for the backlight required in display technologies such as liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Plastics Plastics (or polymers) are generally compounds based upon carbon and hydrogen (Organic Compounds). They are very large molecular structures. Usually they are low density and are not stable at high temperatures.

41 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Semiconductors SEMIconductors have electrical properties intermediate between Metallic conductors and Ceramic insulators. Also, the electrical properties are strongly dependent upon small amounts of Impurities.

42 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Composites Composites consist of more than one material type. Fiberglass, a combination of glass and a polymer, is an example. Concrete and plywood are other familiar composites. Many new combinations include ceramic fibers in a metal or polymer matrix.

43 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Composites

44 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Composites Graphite Matrix Composite Shaft Liquid Metal FacePlate Golf Clubs Hand bag Ghost airplane

45 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI BioMaterials Materials compatible with an organism (e.g. Humans) that can be used to make implants, prostheses, and surgical instruments. Designed not to provoke rejection by our bodies (skin, blood, bone, etc.), they can be natural (collagen, cellulose, etc.) or synthetic (metallic, alloy, ceramic, plastic, and others). Dental crowns and contact-lenses use biomaterials.

46 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI Kingdom Family Class Attributes Member Ceramics Polymers Metals Natural Foams Composites Steels Cu-alloys Al-alloys Ti-alloys Ni-alloys Zn-alloys Materials A material record or properties Density Mechanical props. Thermal props. Electrical props. Optical props. Corrosion props. Supporting information -- specific -- general Structured information Unstructured information Data Organization of Materials

47 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI mount Metallography: to see microstructures metal Steel (Fe-C) Nickel Alloy 242

48 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI The goal of design: To create products that perform their function effectively, safely, at acceptable cost What do we need to know about materials to do this? More than just test data. Test Test data Data capture Stat/Math analysis Design data Successful applications $ Economic analysis and business case Selection of material and process Potential applications Characterization Selection and implementation Materials Information for Design

49 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI

50 University TENAGA NasionalLecturer: Dr. HABEEB ALANI


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