Presentation on theme: "Institute of Thermal Technology Konarskiego 18, 44-100 Gliwice, POLAND New Challenges in Eco-designing of Energy Consuming Installations in Particular."— Presentation transcript:
Institute of Thermal Technology Konarskiego 18, Gliwice, POLAND New Challenges in Eco-designing of Energy Consuming Installations in Particular Small Combustion Installations (1) Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Poland (2) Department of Chemical and Processing Apparatus Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Poland Krystyna Kubica(1), Andrzej Szlęk(1), Robert Kubica (2) International Forum of R&D for Eco-innovation Katowice, October 2009
Small Combustion Installation - definition What is a small scale combustion installation? A combustion unit of less than 50 MWth thermal capacity, traditionally not regulated at the EU level –Sectors: residential, commercial/ institutional, industrial –Technologies/Fuels: gas, oil, coal, wood.. –Types of installation: of which there are a large number
Importance of Small Combustion Installations Contribution to total emissions (RAINS model results) PollutantYear Oxides of nitrogen4.5%5%7% Sulfur dioxide11%8%7% AmmoniaAbout 0.5% - 1% NMVOC (1) 7% PM 2.5 (2) 25% 19% PM 10 (2) 22%20%15% Source: IIASA, 2004 (1) Contributions vary widely from country to country, e.g. 1% - 3% in the Netherlands or Italy, 10%-15% in Austria and 25%-30% in Sweden, (2) Contributions vary widely from country to country, e.g. 2%-4% in the Netherlands and 40%- 50% in Austria and Sweden
Importance of Small Combustion Installations Emission of PAHs from residential use of solid fuels and biomass accounts for about half of the total emission of PAHs in EU [COM(2003) 423 final]; in Poland about 84% in 2006 Dębski et al., 2009; Emission of PCDD/F from those activities accounts for one third of dioxin emissions in the EU (Quass U., et al., 2000); in Poland about 43% (of national total) Dębski et al.,2009; Emission of PM10 ( ) from non-industrial SCIs in different countries; Pye S. at al.; Costs and environmental effectiveness …. AEAT/ED48256/Draft Final Report 2004
Importance of Small Combustion Installations Mercury emissions Pye S., Jones G., Stewart R., Woodfield M., Kubica K., Kubica R., Pacyna J. 2005; Costs and environmental effectiveness of options for reducing mercury …, AEAT/ED48706/Final report v2 Non-industrial SCI sources All SCI sources Projections by sector and fuel
Why essential improving of SCIs quality? To sum – up: solid fuels (coal fuels) – main energy source in many countries; low energetic efficiency of appliances, lack or low efficiency of flue gas cleaning systems emission factors for small sources can exceed many times the factors of the same pollutants for industry (PM, HMs, CO, SO, NO, VOCs and POPs, particularly PAHs, PCDDs/Fs,) low flue gases exhaust, location in residential areas; the influence on the local air quality and human health might be greater than their share in total emissions and implementation of EU Policies
EU Strategy - Environmental and Climate Action CAFE - Clean Air for Europe, DG Environment EC - Environment EC - Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution COM(2005) 446 final Brussels, Small combustion sources burning coal and wood: one of the sources for particulate matter (PM) pollution to be addressed with priority The Strategy sets specific long-term target to decrease emissions (for 2020): primary PM2.5 (particles emitted directly into the air) by 59% compared with the year The establishment of standards for small heating installations is also envisaged through the new Directive Energy-using Products The Climate action and renewable energy package - 28 January 2008 sets up three ambitious quantitative targets described as 3x20: reduce greenhouse gases at least 20% by 2020 (compared with 1990 levels), reduce energy consumption by 20% through increased energy efficiency, meet 20% of our energy needs from renewable sources. EU Energy policy and SCIs – the products for domestic sector Directive on Eco-design for Energy-using Products (EuP) (2005)
EuP Directive implementation Directive 2005/32/EC of the European Parliament Framework Directive for the setting of eco-design requirements for Energy using Products; 6 July 2005 (Official Journal of the European Union) Scope of the Directive: – In principle, all Energy using Products – Specific product categories for eco-design requirements to be defined ( 20 studies launched – 20 Lots, managed by DG TREN EC) – Measures of action: Setting of eco-design requirements (Implementing Measures) EuP Preparatory Study – Lot 15 Solid Fuel SCIs ECODESIGN (EC DG XII)
Current state of SCIs – Energy using Products for domestic sector SCIs – final design product, a standalone appliance 0,5 MWth output
Small Combustion Installations – solid fuels Solid fuels are divided in two main categories ( the EMEP/Corinair Emission Inventory Guidebook ) : Solid mineral fuels: anthracite, hard coal, brown coal, patent fuels, brown coal briquettes, coke, charcoal, peat; Solid biomass fuels: wood (log, pellets, chips), wood wastes, agricultural wastes used as fuels (straw, straw pellets corncobs, etc). Solid fuel SCIs a design for a specific fuel type! Fuels OTHERS Volatile matter contents; Biomass 80% Coal 35%
The combustion process organisation 3 categories of the combustion process organisation: counter-current flow; over-fire, overfeed appliances, manually fuelled, the combustion air is leaded in the opposite direction to the fuel stream and the flame is guided in the opposite direction to the fuel stream also – old type of stove, fireplace, insert cross-current flow; cross-current flow; under-fire, manually fuelled, with distribution of air i.e., primary and secondary air supply for the process (the combustion air is leaded in the opposite direction to the fuel stream, the flame and the flue gas removal is in the middle of the furnace chamber) – semi- automatic and automatic fuelled boilers, co-current flow; upper-fire, underfed stoker boiler, automatic fuelled, the combustion air and fuel are leaded in the same direction and the flame is guided in the same direction as the fuel – automatic fuelled coal and biomass boiler From Kubica K., (2003/1); Environment Pollutants.., in Thermochemical Transformation of Coal and Biomass; pp , ISBN , Publication, Copyright by IChPW and IGSMiE PAN; Zabrze-Kraków; 2003, (in Polish)
Categorisation of small combustion installations;
Quality of SCIs - Test Standard Overview StandardApplies toFunctional parametersEmissions Heat output EfficiencyCODust TSP OGCNOx EN303-5Boilers <300kWYYYYYY EN12089Residential Boilers <50kW YYYN.D. EN13240RoomheatersYYYN.D. EN13229Inset appliancesYYYN.D. EN14785Residential space heaters YYYN.D. EN12815Residential CookersYYYN.D. EN15250Slow heat release appliances YYYN.D. EN 15270Pellet burners for small heating boilers YYYN.D.
Historical improvement of CO and dust emissions from biomass and coal SCIs;
Pollutants emission for coal and wood boilers
Direct heating appliances efficiency and emissions data measured under test standard conditions
SECONDARY MEASURES New Challenges in Eco-designing of SCIs PRIMARY MEASURES THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF SCIS (PM, CO, NOx) ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
Decrease the energy consumption of SCIs There are two general ways to decrease the energy consumption of SCIs: improve the efficiency of the appliance, such as by optimising the performance of the combustion chamber and the heat exchange circuit, programmable control system, that maximises the efficiency of the heat produced not only based on the combustion process parameters but also according to the external environment, by reducing overheating phases, for instance. Improvement fuel quality - Solid fuel SCIs a design for a specific fuel type!
Improvement the environmental performance There are two general ways to decrease the energy consumption of SCIs: primary measures - improvement the appliance efficiency, optimising the combustion process (combustion parameters, combustion process organization), improvement fuel quality (additives - denitrification, desulphurisation, OGC reduction); quality of construction materials secondary measures – dedusting, OGC, NOx and SOx reduction by catalytic afterburning (post-combustion).
R & D activities on SCIs improvement Improve the energy and environmental performance of SCIs (capacity <500kWth) require further scientific and basic research on: solid fuel (biomass and coal) fixed bed combustion process control (continuous) system of combustion process development of combustion catalysts development of construction material (ceramic and steel) emission abatement techniques namely dedusting, denitrification, desulphurization systems and TOC, HM, PCDD/Fs reduction methods new harmonized method for TSP, PM10, PM2.5 determination for SCIs It is also necessary to intensify research activities within the field of small scale of combined heat and power plants (CHPs) fuelled with solid fuels.
Traditional solid fuels SCIs are great emitters!!! R&D activities and implementation of BAT for SCIs will make them really small emitters!