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WOOD 120 Bio-energy 1. The “Bio-Buzzwords” Bio-energy Bio-fuels Bio-mass Bio-diesel 2.

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Presentation on theme: "WOOD 120 Bio-energy 1. The “Bio-Buzzwords” Bio-energy Bio-fuels Bio-mass Bio-diesel 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 WOOD 120 Bio-energy 1

2 The “Bio-Buzzwords” Bio-energy Bio-fuels Bio-mass Bio-diesel 2

3 Past practice in BC 3 Beehive burners Sawmill waste (hog fuel) was burned without capturing heat value. Now sawmill waste is burned to heat the dry kilns. A “Darlek”

4 Forms of Energy Electricity Transportation fuel Heat 4

5 Forms of Energy Solid Liquid Gas

6 Fossil fuels (the simple slide) 6 CO 2 Fossil Fuels

7 Bioenergy (the simple slide) 7 CO 2 Fossil Fuels Biomass

8 Bioenergy (the more complicated slide) 8

9 Bioenergy – drivers Climate change Shortages of traditional energy sources Costs of traditional energy sources Energy security Landfill reduction Mountain Pine Beetle (BC-specific) 9

10 Biomass – sources Grain Straw Grass Sugar cane (bagasse) Wood (lignocellulose) 10

11 Wood vs. other cellulosic biomasses Longer storage life and lower storage costs Higher bulk density Less intensive use of water and fertilizer in its growth Established collection system 11

12 Transportation 12

13 Energy density of materials 13 GJ per unit

14 Bioenergy – technology options Direct combustion Wood pellets Gasification Bio-diesel Bio-ethanol 14

15 Bio-fuel status in BC 15

16 Wood Pellets Sawmill waste extruded into small pellets. Either burned directly for heat value or for generation of electricity Used domestically (N.A.) and industrially (Europe) 16

17 Wood Pellets Waste may be ground to consistent, fine size. Pellets are held together by natural “adhesive” in wood (lignin). Pellets are denser than starting material. 17

18 Wood Pellet Stove 1 – Hopper 2 – Convection fan 3 – Auger 4 – Ash pan 5 – Igniter 6 – Heat exchange tubes 7 – Burn chamber 18

19 Pellet plants in BC 8 plants 787,000 tonnes production Plant capacity 56-186,000 tonnes Used 2.2 million m 3 of wood residues 10% of global market

20 Liquid biofuels Bio-ethanol (one example) Currently produced from grain (in NA) Blended with gasoline Gasoline:ethanol 90:10 Reduces carbon monoxide emissions 20

21 Bioethanol from wood waste 21 Wood Pre- treatment Solid material Sugars in solution Solid residue Alcohol Fermentation Enzymes Burn New products?

22 LIGNOCELLULOSE Pretreatment Fractionation Fermentation Recovery Enzymatic Hydrolysis PentosesHexoses Lignin Cellulose Hemicellulose Extractives BIOFUELSBIOENERGY BIOPRODUCTS STARCH Pretreatment Fractionation Fermentation Recovery Enzymatic Hydrolysis Hexoses SUGAR Pretreatment Fractionation Fermentation Recovery Hexoses Conversion of biomass sources

23 Bio-ethanol from wood Wood is hard to break down into chemical components High cost of enzymes Products need to be developed utilizing solid residue (lignin) Rate of development of technology is influenced by price of oil 23

24 Gasification Burns biomass with controlled amount of oxygen Converts biomass into carbon monoxide and hydrogen Results in “syngas” which is itself a fuel 24

25 Gasification Cleaner and more efficient technology than direct conversion of biomass Syngas can be burned on site (for production of electricity) or transported (increase in energy density) 25

26 Gasification plant at UBC Opened in September 2012 25,000 tonnes of urban wood waste per year Generation of steam and electricity Low pressure steam (15% reduction of natural gas used for heating) Electricity generation (2MW, demonstration scale) GHG reduction of 5,000 tonnes/year * 26

27 27 Gasification plant at UBC Photo credits: Don Erhardt

28 Electricity generation 28 Raw material ?

29 Cogeneration plant William’s Lake, BC Est. 1993 60 MW capacity Electricity feeds into BC Hydro grid Burns wood waste (600,000 tonnes/year) Five local sawmills provide wood waste (combined capacity of 1 billion fbm) High efficiency combustion 29

30 Looking back and forward…??

31 Current Status of Bio-Energy Technologies 31 Gasification

32 Bio-energy - issues Government policies (e.g., tax credits? R&D incentives?) Competing green technologies (e.g., wind, wave, geothermal) Competing bio-energy technology platforms still being developed Food vs. Fuel vs. Fibre

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