Presentation on theme: "KERALA FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE"— Presentation transcript:
1KERALA FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE STATUS OF RUBBERWOOD PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION IN INDIA – A COUNTRY REPORTDr. T. K. DhamodaranScientist (Wood Science & Technology)Forest Utilization Programme DivisionKERALA FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTEPeechi – , Thrissur District, Kerala State, IndiaPh:Mobile:Fax:
2Emergence of Rubberwood Utilization concept in India: 1980s. INTRODUCTIONEmergence of Rubberwood Utilization concept in India: 1980s.Earlier uses: Domestic and Industrial firewood, low cost packing cases where high durability is not requiredLater, timber shortage and escalation of timber prices – emerged the concept of utilizing rubberwood for thick packing cases, pallets, furniture, plywood, panel boards and re-constituted board productsPerishable nature of the timber – attack from sap-staining & decay fungi in green condition and insect borers in partially dry to dry timber – need for developing appropriate processing techniques to enhance durability.Research inputs on Rubberwood processing and utilization in India – Prominent role of KFRI – Concerted R & D efforts
3Estimated deforestation rate in developing countries: Production PotentialGlobal ScenarioEstimated deforestation rate in developing countries:16.8million ha/annum.0.96 million ha of tropical rain forests can be conserved with the utilization of economically available rubberwood on an annual basisAn additional 0.3 million ha of tropical rain forests can be further saved per annum, if all the available physical potential of rubberwood were used.In terms of money, rubberwood finished products generate about US$ 1.5 Billion per annum in the world market.
4Production Potential ---Contd… World Growing stock of Rubberwood: 866 million m3 – Only 75% of this is utilized for industrial applications due to infrastructural and local constraints, size of holdings, quality of logs, etc.Logs of dia > 15 cms – for sawmilling & plywood sector;Logs of dia 15-5 cms - for fuel wood sectorAnnual world physical production of rubberwood during 1998: 41 million m3 (11 million m3 for sawmilling & plywood industry)Estimated production potential for : 52 million m3 (14 million m3 log out put for sawing/peeling)
5Production Potential -- Contd… In the backdrop of ITTO’S decision to allow only tropical timber originated from sustainably managed sources (SMS) for international trade, Rubberwood is getting acceptance all over the world.Indian ScenarioHon. Supreme Court banned clear felling of trees from the natural forestsSearch for a renewable source of wood leads to the identification of rubberwood, a product of sustainably managed plantations as an eco-friendly alternative to natural forest-based timber.Low cost coupled with plentiful availability – Warranted attention to develop preservative treatment techniques to overcome its inherent property of low durabilitySuccess in developing preservative treatment for rubberwood in India opened up its large scale potential for commercial exploitation in the country.
6Production Potential Indian Scenario -- Contd… INDIA – The 4th largest natural Rubber producing country in the world!Area under rubber cultivation: 5,83,000 haGrowth rate: 4.65%Current average estimated production of rubberwood/ha:SH:150 m3 (5300 CFT)Estates: 180 m3Felling age:SH: 22 years; 265 trees/ha in felling stageEstates: 29 years; 245 trees/ha in felling stageAverage yield of timber/tree: 0.73 m3 for estate grown & 0.57 m3 for SH60:40 Proportion of stem wood and branch wood from both sectorAvailability: 1.6 million m3/year (87% from SHs)
7Production Potential Indian Scenario -- Contd… Projected production of Rubberwood in India forSlight declining trend due to slowdown in earlier planting area.As the country is timber deficit, importing wood and wood products worth Rs millions/annum underlines the need of a scientific approach in the commercial utilization of available production potential.Estimated annual requirement of timber: 40 million m3Domestic availability of timber: million m3Rubberwood (stem wood) has the potential to offer around 25 of the country’s timber requirementIt has a further potential to conserve more than 20,000 ha of tropical rain forests on an annual basisTherefore, it is essential to streamline the policies required for maximum value-addition to this precious by-product of the rubber plantations
8Commercial Utilization Stem wood share: 60%- Utilized by sawmilling & plywood sectorSawn logs to furniture, panel boards, pallets, packing cases, etc.Branch wood (40% share) is utilized for household & Industrial firewood – Not utilized for potential value-added sector (re-constituted boards)In , out of the available 1.1 million m3, 45% gone for packing case sector, 29% for plywood, 21% for treated wood; safety matches and others 5%.Shift of planting material to high latex- low timber yielding varieties as well as staggered and delayed replanting caused a declining trend of wood availability (from 0.63 million m3 in to 0.22 million m3 in ’07).
9Price of SAWN TIMBER remain steady during 2002-’08 Rs. 375- 475/CFT. Price trendFor trees over a girth of 675 mm (Weight: 0.5 Tonne/tree) – price remain more or less steady during (Rs. 400/tree); escalated to Rs. 1250/tree- in 2008.Price of SAWN TIMBER remain steady during 2002-’08 Rs /CFT.Current Situation: High price for latex (Rs /kg) – Reluctance for felling – Shortage of timber – escallation of per tree price88% of area in SHs, 91% of production from small growers; 10.1 lakh growers, 275 large growers.Source of additional revenue – cheaper than competing woods (30-40% lower than teak)
10PROCESSING Primary processing - conversion, sawmilling & veneering - Dominant role of intermediaries (felling & logging contractors, suppliers, transporting agencies, sawmillers, etc.) - Indirect procurement system – Affects log quality assurance mechanismLower level of vertical integration in the industry –Non-compliance of any single product manufacturing or products of specified dimensions – Resulting more wastage of wood – Absence of strong and enough panel-based or reconstituted wood products manufacturing base – Waste utilization ?
11SawingPractice of allowing more ‘tolerance’ in the thickness of sawn planks – up to 64% sawn timber recovery in the sawmilling & packing case industryGeneral reluctance of sawmillers to process logs for high quality sawn timber desired for secondary processing – due to low recovery rate of 50% and inadequate supply of logs with higher girth class required for this specific sector.
12Sawing …Low installed capacity utilization: 3-8 m3/ 8 hr. shift/day compared to 10 m3 in Malaysia.90% of the sales from sawmills are for packing cases; 10% for planks suitable for secondary processing.VeneeringVeneering industries operate in a large scale (consuming logs of tones/year)Only 20% of the units have plywood manufacturing facilities, remaining units produce only dry peels.Veneering units depends more on intermediaries who controls more than 50% of the volume of veneer sales.Major stock of rubberwood veneers are utilized for low quality plywood and for core veneers.
13Preservative Treatment – State of Art in India Freshly cut logs of average girth cms & length 270 cms; wood with a mean basic density of 550 kg/m3.High MC; susceptible to sap-staining fungi (mainly Botryodiplodia theobromae) causing extensive discoloration – affecting aesthetic quality of products and thereby affecting price – Remedial measures: use of NaPCP/anti-sapstain chemicals; bituminous end coats to logs to prevent rapid drying (to control development of drying defects leading wood wastage) till further conversion in sawmills.Permanent preservative treatment of sawn sizes – Simple dip diffusion & VPI treatments – Use of CCB/Boron chemicals –BIS: KFRI Contributions.
14Drying/Seasoning of Treated Timber Standards & ProceduresBIS: 1993,2001BIS: 1141: 1993Treated RSKD and finished sizes for furniture components & other value-added products for Secondary Processing
15Secondary ProcessingThe amazing workability – suitable foe secondary processingWorkability not adversely affected by treatment & dryingGood sawing & machining properties; can be planed, grooved and sanded easilyAttractive grain patterns, good luster, ability to accept any dye or stain – makes it ideal for home or office furniture, flooring and paneling materialWastes can be utilized for particle boards, MDF boards, wood cement boards, etc.Processed rubberwood from India compares favorably well with the rubberwood from any other countries.
16Secondary Processing …. Main indicator of degree of commercialization: Relative share of stem wood in the secondary processing – Underutilization in India – lower share of the sawn timber (33% -0,22 million m3 out of the total 0.67 million m3 available stem wood during 2006-’07 ) utilized by the secondary processing sector.In 1985, 81% of sawn timber output in Malaysia was exported; more than 72% of the export earnings were from sawn timberWithin a decade, well conceived government policy interventions (providing incentives to the export of value-added products and promotion of R & D efforts for the technological up-gradation of the downstream manufacturing process and clearly spell out regulations on sawn timber exports) in Malaysia facilitated up to 82% of the total export earnings is from furniture
17Secondary Processing …. Switching over from semi-finished to finished products is advocated for ready international marketability.FSC Certification for Rubberwood products is also in its way.
18Kerala ContextMore than 86% of India’s area under rubber cultivation is in Kerala State.Up 69% of the installed capacity for secondary processing in India is vested in Kerala due to proximity to raw material resourcesKerala produces 92% of Rubberwood in the countryThe lower level of capacity utilization & vertical integration and export orientation prevailing in the rubberwood industry in India hinders the progress in this sector in the country.Any development in the Indian Rubberwood industry scenario should be more emphasized to make it appropriate to Kerala conditions
19Indian Rubberwood Promotional Agencies & their efforts KFRI – Preservative Treatment; Testing & Certification – The most strong organization in Rubberwood Research in the countryFRI (ICFRE) –CCA; SeasoningRBI (RRII) – Rubberwood processing and product manufacturing companies; R & D Lab; Testing & CertificationIWST – Wood TestingIPIRTI – R & D for Reconstitute Board productsCIFT – Boat makingUPASI – Promotion of IRTFBIS – Product Specification & Code of Practice
20Manufacturing Industries & Products Initial attempts to utilize Rubberwood started in 1960s.Gain momentum in terms of technology & investment in 90’s.Today there are 45 Rubberwood processing units of medium sizeWealth & Employment generation, Saving Forests and Tropical hardwoods, eco & Environment friendly wood productsPacking cases are the major productsIn the secondary processing, treated RSKD for mechanical processing for furniture, paneling, flooring, etc.; finger jointed glue laminated material for wide & long board products
21Rubberwood-based Industries in India Biggest Unit: RUBCO-HUAT (25,000 m3 installed capacity/annum)Several small & medium sized Rubberwood processing units – concentrated in KeralaPreservative treated RSKD Is not available in open markets Less use in structural applications (housing)– suggests for policy changes for the benefit of the common peopleExisting industries consume only one-tenth of the available resourcesScope for further expansion
22Future..?WITH PROPER EXPERTIZE, MORE R & D EFFORTS, FINANCE & GOVERNMENT SUPPORT OPTIMUM EXPLOITATION OF THE AVAILABLE RESOURCES COULD SAVE A FOREIGN EXCHANGE TO THE TUNE OF US $ 200 MILLION & DIRECT EMPLOYMENT OF THE ORDER OF 2, OO, OOO IN INDIA.
23CONCLUSIONIssues:Inability of secondary processing units to control quality and price of logs due to imperfections in the primary market (due to influential role of intermediaries)Absence of well organized panel products industryComparatively higher prices of logsMarketing problems arising from the acceptability of finished products both in domestic and world markets due to the absence of statutory authority to implement and monitor QC standards.
24What needs to be done..?Strengthening promotional agencies in terms of statutory powersStrengthening R & D Institutions in terms of facilities and capabilitiesMarket intelligence and incentives for manufacturing value-added productsPromotion of panel products manufacturing base to absorb the wastes & small dimension logsFormulation of long term plan for ensuring sustained growth of industry--- for building up of the Indian rubberwood industry competitive to the international base in the long run
25AbstractArea – 5,83,000 ha.INDIA - 4th in the World in Rubberwood production87% from SHs.250 trees/ha at the final felling stageMean timber yield/tree 0.65 m3Branch wood – 40% of the total timber yield.Present availability – 1.6 Million m3/yearAnnual Timber requirement: 40 Million m3Domestic Timber availability: Million m3Potential of Rubberwood: can meet 2% of the country’s timber requirementSavings through Rubberwood: US$ 200 Million/yearEmployment generation potential: 2,00,000 peopleSaving of tropical rain forests/Environmental benifit: 20,000ha/year
26Abstract –Contn..Availability for secondary processing: 33% of total stem woodPresent capacity utilization: one-tenth of the available raw materialUtilization: Packing cases: 45%Plywood: 29%Safety Matches & Others: 5%Share of treated wood sector for secondary processing for the manufacture of value-added finished products: 21%Required: Streamlining the policies required for maximum value added utilization of the precious non-conventional low cost timber resource, Rubberwood.
27Result Price of Logs: Rs. 3400/Tonne Price of Sawn timber: Rs. 475/CFT Abstract –Contn..Price of Logs: Rs. 3400/TonnePrice of Sawn timber: Rs. 475/CFTLast 3 yearsTrend: Price of logs slowly increasing whereas price of sawn timber remains more or less stablePresent per tree (0.5 Tonne) price: Rs. 1250/-Price of latex: Rs (high ups & downs)ResultSH farmers unwilling to fell trees– TIMBER SHORTAGE !-- High price of timber compared with the counterparts in the rubberwood rich South-East Asian countries !!
28Abstract –Contn..LACUNAIncreasing influence of Middlemen (logging contractors, brokers, etc) over the primary market leading to imperfections and inability of secondary processing units to control the price and quality of raw materialsAbsence of well organized panel products industries for consuming small dimension logs and sawmill wastesSTRENGTHProcessing & Utilization Technology
29What needs to be done in the Indial Rubberwood Processing Sector?? Abstract –Contn..What needs to be done in the Indial Rubberwood Processing Sector??Strengthening of Promotional Agencies in terms of R & D facilities and statutory powers for market interactions, developing panel products industry base, and formulation of long-term plan for ensuring sustained growth of the industry is suggested for building up of the Indian Rubberwood industry competitive to the international level in the long run.