24First Communication Satellite Launched : TelStar1962(Kennedy era)
25Today there are 2,500 satellites (operative and inoperative): J-Track/Nasa shows 900
26Did you know there are over eight thousand artificial objects orbiting Earth? Over 2,500 are satellites, operative and inoperative. The remaining objects are orbital debris: parts such as nosecone shrouds, lens, hatch covers, rocket bodies, payloads that have disintegrated or exploded, and even objects that "escape" from manned spacecraft during operations.--NASA
27FCC protects Broadcasting The “Must Carry” ruleLocal Cable company MUST carry local broadcasting Channelss - Franchising beginsOnly one cable company per municipalityCompetition to win cable franchises.Usually a 15-year monopoly
44Intense competition to acquire cable franchises = Franchising FRENZYIntense competition to acquire cable franchises
45FCC Allows Cable to GROW: softens rules (DBS is on the Horizon) Must Carry rules are relaxedEvery three years, choose Must Carry (no $) or Retransmission Consent (get $)Some large broadcast station chains use Retransmission consent to leverage new cable channelsPublic access rules are eventually relaxed
48Cable Programming: Narrowcasting More than 250 cable video services offered nationallyAbout 7,090 cable SystemsCable is available to 97% of all households73 % of all U.S. households subscribe to cable(27 % use rabbit ears)
49Cable Programming: Narrowcasting Network Broadcasting: “satisfy the masses”Cable Services: niche programmingPlanned and Existing Networks
50Cable Programming: Narrowcasting GROUP PROJECT:Divide into groups of 6Propose a new cable channel that does two things:It should find a unique market nicheIt should be successful: drawing an audience that appeals to advertisers (be ready to name advertisers)
51Cable Programming: Narrowcasting RULE #1: IT CAN’T BE YOUR DEMOGRAPHICRule #2: It can’t involve “the 80s” in termsOf programming or culture
52Cable Programming: Narrowcasting Basic Cable - cable systems pay between5 cents (C-SPAN)more than $3 (ESPN)=per subscriber, per month(A la carte cable?)Premium CableHBOShowtimePay-per-view and Interactive Cable
53Cable Programming: Narrowcasting VOD - Video on Demand.Biggest new service.For digital cable customers.Downloads programs to digital cable set top box.
54Ownership in Cable About 7.090 Cable Systems Most of cable is controlled by MSOs (multiple system owners)Top 5 MSOs control about 70% of cable audience. (Comcast, Time Warner, Cox, Charter, Cablevision)Prices keep going upIncreasing amounts of advertising
56Ownership in Cable 1996 TeleCommunications Act: ended rate regulation. Allowed cable and other businesses to enter each other’s industries (e.g., cable companies now getting into telephone service).Despite “promises,” cable rates have REMAINED HIGH AND INCREASED.Less than 5 percent of cable customers have competition, which lowers prices significantly(Cedar Falls example).
65Broadcast Satellitesmid-1970s. Big Dish ( feet) satellites appear in rural areas.1994. DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite) television begins. (3 feet or less)DirecTV (owned by News Corp.) and EchoStar are the main corporations.DirectV merges with Echostar, FCC JUST APPROVED IT BUT NOT QUITE DONE YET