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Cable Television.

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Presentation on theme: "Cable Television."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cable Television


3 about 70 percent of U.S. households have cable TV
Cable Television about 70 percent of U.S. households have cable TV


5 Top 25 Cable Systems Top 25 MSO’s (Multiple System Operator)) Cable Networks


7 Ted Turner

8 Ted Turner and Jane Fonda

9 Rupert Murdoch




13 Cable and Satellite: Early Years
Late 1940s: CATV (Community Antenna Television) Used to bring broadcast signal to people in…..

14 Cable and Satellite: Early Years
Rural mountainous or hilly regions

15 Cable and Satellite: Early Years
big cities (tall buildings)

16 Cable HELPED broadcasters get their signal to a wider audience….
But then Cable began to THREATEN, not help, broadcasters….



19 Cable and Satellite: Early Years
Satellites: Envisioned in 1945 by science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke (author of 2001: A Space Odyssey)

20 Clarke article, 1945

21 Clarke article, 1945

22 Cable and Satellite: Early Years
Clarke: imagined 3 satellites in geosynchronous orbit (22,300 miles from earth, traveling at 6,800 mph) In this orbit, satellites maintain the same footprint

23 1958: First satellite launched
(Explorer I) 1960: Echo satellite launched: (geosynchronous orbit)

24 First Communication Satellite Launched :
TelStar 1962 (Kennedy era)

25 Today there are 2,500 satellites (operative and inoperative):
J-Track/Nasa shows 900

26 Did you know there are over eight thousand artificial objects orbiting Earth? Over 2,500 are satellites, operative and inoperative. The remaining objects are orbital debris: parts such as nosecone shrouds, lens, hatch covers, rocket bodies, payloads that have disintegrated or exploded, and even objects that "escape" from manned spacecraft during operations. --NASA

27 FCC protects Broadcasting
The “Must Carry” rule Local Cable company MUST carry local broadcasting Channels s - Franchising begins Only one cable company per municipality Competition to win cable franchises. Usually a 15-year monopoly





32 FCC protects Broadcasting (and supports democracy)
3. By 1972, all cable companies had to supply - Access Channels (PEG) (public, education, government)

33 Bigger threat to broadcasting: New Content
HBO (1975) --just movies 2. Showtime (1976) --just movies 3. WTBS (1976): 1st Superstation

34 TBS: Logos, 1976 until today



37 later other superstations: WGN [Chicago, 1978] WWOR [New York/NJ, 1978]

38 Satellites: New Content
Cable begins to GROW CNN (1980) “Chicken noodle network”




42 Satellites: New Content
MTV (1981) (video killed the radio star)

43 Discovery Channel, launched 1985 Comedy Central, launched 1989

44 Intense competition to acquire cable franchises
= Franchising FRENZY Intense competition to acquire cable franchises

45 FCC Allows Cable to GROW: softens rules (DBS is on the Horizon)
Must Carry rules are relaxed Every three years, choose Must Carry (no $) or Retransmission Consent (get $) Some large broadcast station chains use Retransmission consent to leverage new cable channels Public access rules are eventually relaxed

46 Fox News --network launched 1996

47 Fox News --network launched 1996

48 Cable Programming: Narrowcasting
More than 250 cable video services offered nationally About 7,090 cable Systems Cable is available to 97% of all households 73 % of all U.S. households subscribe to cable (27 % use rabbit ears)

49 Cable Programming: Narrowcasting
Network Broadcasting: “satisfy the masses” Cable Services: niche programming Planned and Existing Networks

50 Cable Programming: Narrowcasting
GROUP PROJECT: Divide into groups of 6 Propose a new cable channel that does two things: It should find a unique market niche It should be successful: drawing an audience that appeals to advertisers (be ready to name advertisers)

51 Cable Programming: Narrowcasting
RULE #1: IT CAN’T BE YOUR DEMOGRAPHIC Rule #2: It can’t involve “the 80s” in terms Of programming or culture

52 Cable Programming: Narrowcasting
Basic Cable - cable systems pay between 5 cents (C-SPAN) more than $3 (ESPN) =per subscriber, per month (A la carte cable?) Premium Cable HBO Showtime Pay-per-view and Interactive Cable

53 Cable Programming: Narrowcasting
VOD - Video on Demand. Biggest new service. For digital cable customers. Downloads programs to digital cable set top box.

54 Ownership in Cable About 7.090 Cable Systems
Most of cable is controlled by MSOs (multiple system owners) Top 5 MSOs control about 70% of cable audience. (Comcast, Time Warner, Cox, Charter, Cablevision) Prices keep going up Increasing amounts of advertising

55 Ownership in Cable 1996 Telecommunications Act

56 Ownership in Cable 1996 TeleCommunications Act: ended rate regulation.
Allowed cable and other businesses to enter each other’s industries (e.g., cable companies now getting into telephone service). Despite “promises,” cable rates have REMAINED HIGH AND INCREASED. Less than 5 percent of cable customers have competition, which lowers prices significantly (Cedar Falls example).

57 Video: Cable and the 1996 Telecommunication Act

58 Ownership in Cable Cedar Falls Utilities
(also Spencer, Hawarden, Larens) have invested in city-owned cable operating systems. Ensured that Cedar Falls was part of the Internet revolution early on.


60 Broadcast Satellites How satellite companies operate
C-Bands: Huge dishes

61 Ku-bands: DirectTV /News trucks, etc.
Broadcast Satellites Ku-bands: DirectTV /News trucks, etc.



64 Vincor: satellite company

65 Broadcast Satellites mid-1970s. Big Dish ( feet) satellites appear in rural areas. 1994. DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite) television begins. (3 feet or less) DirecTV (owned by News Corp.) and EchoStar are the main corporations. DirectV merges with Echostar, FCC JUST APPROVED IT BUT NOT QUITE DONE YET


67 Broadcast Satellites Satellite Radio XM Sirius

68 Broadcast Satellites Satellite Radio
XM Sirius INTERNET: download & Stream programming

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