5 Annual forage integration with main crops Pearl miller (Pennisetum americanum) eg. Nutrifeed Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor X S. sudanense ect.) eg. Jumbo Corn Sunflower
6 Use of forage legumes and agroecosystems Protein bank Rotational plot and mixed pasture Shrub legumes as fence and alley cropping Three strata forages production systems (Indonesia) Sylvopastoral
7 Utilization of topography and climate more effectively Ponded pasture : Hymenachne pseudointerupta, para grass, Humidicola grass, Sesbania spp., Aeschynomene americanum cv. Glen & cv. Lee Drought tolurance spp. : Acidic soil tolurance spp. : Heavy grazing tolurance spp. :
8 Other crop managements grazing heavy prior drought reduce excess LAI to avoid water loss during dry season ponded pasture : Brachiaria mutica, Hymenchne amplexicanle, H. acutiglume, H. pseudointerupta, Echinochloa polystachya, Aeschynomene americana burning to control weeds and stimulate sprout goats browsing to change damage site on pasture
9 Forage quality triangle for critical pasture production Proper choice of species Favourable agro-climatic conditions 4 M resources availability CP = 13 % ME = 8 MJ/Kg Proper grazing management right stage, right system Right stocking rate, height defoliation, season Fertilizer management Type, rate, time
10 The uses of burning to control the old and low nutritive materials to enhance reshoot easier to oversown legumes & grasses seed to control woody weed species manage the animals tract to control insect and parasite diseases to make a fire break
11 How is the pasture burned ? Burning time Burning temperature Fuel load – pasture growth stage & season – and dead material mass
12 Alter pasture demand by animal management Seasonal mating Rotational grazing Sold and buy animal : what kind of animal to sold, sytems of the enterprise eg. concentrate feed vs. pasture feedlot
13 Successful livestock production Successful livestock production can not be accomplished by ignoring either plant or animal requirement. It will require several kinds of forages, sevaral pastures and a grazing plan. After Walker Steven S. 1998.
14 References Blesser, R.E. et. al. 1986. Forage-Animal Management Systems. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 86-7. Blackbsurg. Virginia. Moog, F.A. and R.N. Acasio. 1991. Roles of Native Forages Associated with Upland Crops. in (Vina, A.C. de la. ed) Utilization of Native Forages for Animal Production. 2nd Meeting of Regional Working Group on Grazing and Feed Resources of Southeast Asia. 26 Feb. - 5 Mar. 1991. Los Banos. Philippines. Wanapat, M. 1993. Utilization of forage, crop residues and tree fodders for ruminants in Thailand. in (Chen, C.P. and Satjipanon, C. eds) Strategies for Suitable Forages-based Livestock Production in Southeast Asia. 3 rd. Meeting of Regional Working Group on Grazing and Feed Resources of Southeast Asia. 28 Jan. - 5 Feb. 1993. Khon Kaen. Thailand.
15 References : Heady, N.F. 1975. Range Management. McGraw Hill Book Co. New York: 70-87 (SF85 H43 1975) Stoddard, L.A., A.D. Smith and T.W. Box. 1975. Range Management. McGraw Hill Book Co. New York: 146-172 (SF85 H43 1975) Sweet & Tacheba 1985. Ecology and Management of the Worlds Savannas. Tothill, 1971. Tropical grasslands 5:1 Whiteman, P.C. 1980. Tropical Pasture Science :London. Oxford University Press. Stur. W.W., P.M. Horne, J.B. Hacker and P.C. Kerridge. 2000. Working With Farmers: The key to adoption of forage technologies. Proc. of an International workshop Cagayan de Oro City, Phillipines. 12-15 Oct. 1999 : Canberra. ACIAR.