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Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Selecting Cool Season Species and Varieties for Sports Dr. Leah A. Brilman Research Director.

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Presentation on theme: "Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Selecting Cool Season Species and Varieties for Sports Dr. Leah A. Brilman Research Director."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Selecting Cool Season Species and Varieties for Sports Dr. Leah A. Brilman Research Director Seed Research of Oregon

2 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Species Selection Typical problems Wear at goal mouth Wear in middle of field Wear near sidelines Short repair times Repair only at difficult times Repair during play

3 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Species Selection Goal -Sports Turf Usage Type of Sport Football, soccer, baseball, field hockey Season(s) of play Type of construction - sand, soil Time for renovation/repair Budget for construction and maintenance Other uses of field

4 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Species Selection Turf characteristics for Sports Turf Wear tolerant Fast establishment Rapid recovery Lateral stability Stable footing Tolerant of mowing height Diesease tolerant

5 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Species Selection Important characteristics for Sports Turf Low light tolerant Winter active growth Drought tolerant Good aesthetics Nice color Good mowing quality

6 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Cool-season Species for Sports Bluegrass species Kentucky bluegrass Texas x Kentucky bluegrass Poa supina Ryegrass Perennial Transitional Tall fescue Deschampsia

7 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Types of Kentucky Bluegrasses Compact TypesCELA Type CompactBVMG Type MidnightShamrock type AmericaCheri Type Aggressive TypeJulia Type Bellevue TypeCommon Type Mid-Atlantic TypeOther Type

8 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Types of Kentucky Bluegrasses Selection of type of bluegrass for sports NJ Wear - Spring, summer and fall wear High performersLow performers CompactAmerica MidnightBVMG JuliaCheri AggressiveCommon Mid-Atlantic Repeat with wear, compaction different seasons

9 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Types of Kentucky Bluegrasses Selection of type of bluegrass for sports WI Wear trial - fall wear Combined with perennial ryegrass varying percentages Only obtained 50% KBG with less than 15% rye No difference between Midnight types, BVMG types, Aggressive types Common types less wear tolerant Midnight, Fairfax more dominant in blends

10 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Types of Kentucky Bluegrasses MA Wear trial - unirrigated, no fungicides Wear 75 passes over 4 days late Oct. - real life? Shear strength in September No consistent pattern of variety type Little correlation shear strength and wear No correlation with Rutgers except Avalanche and P-105. Others - Bedazzled, Brooklawn, Bedazzled, Baritone Highest rated shear and wear low rated at Rutgers - Blue Sapphire

11 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Types of Kentucky Bluegrasses IA Wear trial NTEP Cheri type - Serene Other - Coventry, Chateau Common - Kenblue America - America, good - Unique, Brilliant, Apollo, Showcase Midnight - Rugby II, good - Midnight, Award, Nustar, NuGlade Shamrock- Champagne

12 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Compact Types Compact, Midnight, America Low, compact growth High quality turf 1/2 inch cutting height Excellent resistance to Leaf Spot Long Winter dormancy Variable under Summer stress Often purple Winter color

13 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Compact Type Cultivars SR 2109P-105 Ram IDiva MoonshadowPlatini WildwoodIndigo MoonlightGlade BlackstoneAlpine BlacksburgApex

14 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Midnight Type Characteristics of compact type Very dark green color Late Spring green-up Good heat tolerance Susceptible to powdery mildew Variable resistance to Summer Patch Not good in shade sites

15 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Midnight Type Cultivars Midnight IIRugby IIGinney AwardImpactAwesome MidnightTotal EclipseBarrister LiberatorQuantum LeapBeyond OdysseyAbsoluteImpact NuGladeTsunamiExcursion NuDestinyArcadiaBluestone

16 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Aggressive Type Aggressive lateral growth High shoot density Very wear tolerant Quickly knit sod and repair May predominate in blend Variable in other characteristics

17 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Aggressive Type Cultivars P-105Cheetah BaririsA-34 TouchdownMystic LimousineNorthstar

18 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Julia Type High turf quality High density Good Summer performance Moderate Winter performance Good Leaf Spot, Stripe Smut resistance Susceptible to Brown Patch, Dollar Spot

19 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Julia Type Cultivars Avalanche Julia Caliber Ikone PpH 7832

20 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research America Type Characteristics of compact type Finer leaf, higher density Moderate Winter dormancy Moderate Summer recovery High Summer Patch resistance Resistant to powdery mildew Good in shade

21 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research America Type Cultivars ShowcaseApollo SR 2284Brilliant KingfisherLangara AmericaUnique BedazzledSonoma BoutiqueRoyale ArrowBordeaux GlenmontMallard

22 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Mid-Atlantic Type Deep, extensive roots and rhizomes Vigorous turf & medium-high density High Summer stress tolerance Early Spring green-up Good Winter performance Rapid recovery from disease Leaf spot susceptible except: SR 2000 and Preakness

23 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Mid-Atlantic Type Cultivars SR 2000Livingston MonopolyBel-21 PreaknessPlush EagletonWabash Cabernet

24 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Shamrock Type Moderate Winter color Good resistance to Leaf Spot Good turf quality and sod strength Billbug susceptible High seed yields Less stemmy than BVMG types Summer performance variable Large seed - quick germination

25 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Shamrock Type Cultivars SR 2100 Shamrock Champagne Parkland

26 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research BVMG Type High seed yields Medium-good turf Stripe Smut susceptible Medium low growth Large seed - quick germ Medium wide leaves Very stemmy turf Poor Winter performance Billbug susceptible

27 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research BVMG Type Cultivars BaronNassau VictaRaven MeritMarquis GnomeBlueChip DragonFortuna AbbeyGoldrush BlueStarCrest Cannon

28 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Common Type (Midwest Ecotypes) Erect growth and narrow leaf blades Good Summer stress tolerance (may go dormant) High Leaf Spot susceptibility Poor Winter color and performance Early seed production Good for soil stabilization/conservation

29 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Common Type (Midwest Ecotypes) KenblueHuntsville S-21Park GearyPiedmont AleneGreenley GingerGarfield South Dakota Cert

30 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Texas X Kentucky bluegrass Texas bluegrass heat and drought tolerant, extensive and deep rhizomes Kentucky bluegrass turf quality 1st generation low fertility, low germination Backcrossed to Kentucky bluegrass More extensive rhizomes Greater heat and drought tolerance Must evaluate for diseases, germination vigor, apomixis

31 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Texas x Kentucky bluegrass Many first hybrids poor germination Thermal Blue = HB 129 = BH Improved establishment High shear strength Excellent rhizomes = good recovery Good wear tolerance in Ohio - not high Rutgers Additional new hybrids with good establishment, high drought tolerance

32 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Texas X Kentucky bluegrass Rhizomes on young spaced plants Deep rhizomes contribute to recovery Bluegrass usage further south Top rated for shear strength NTEP

33 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Poa supina bluegrass Very wear tolerant Very shade tolerant Fast coverage, aggressive Current material light green Used for sports turf in Northern climates Needs Darker color and heat tolerance Improved establishment, especially during play

34 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Perennial ryegrass Advantages in mixtures Quick establishment Very dark green color Resistant to different diseases than KBG/TF Endophyte-enhanced Disadvantages in mixtures Overdominate other components Bunch-type growth Reduced stress tolerance

35 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Perennial ryegrass Advantages and varietal needs Rapid establishment - Best species for establishment during play Winter-active growth for many uses Daylength-dependent dwarf types less suitable Less slickness (interspecific crosses) Decumbent, spreading growth - superior in Europe for repair Trials at STRI, WSU, MO, NY Reduce nitrogen requirements Best in regular trials may not be best in wear trials Season of play, establishment important

36 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Perennial ryegrass Highest rated NTEP Athletic field management without traffic MACH 1 (ROBERTS-627) APPLAUD (PENNINGTON-11301) PIZZAZZ SR 4220 (SRX 4801) ALL STAR2 (CIS-PR-78) JET CHARISMATIC (LTP ) PINNACLE II (BAR 9 B2) GATOR 3 (CIS-PR-85) KOKOMO (CIS-PR-69) CITATION FORE (PST-2BR) PENTIUM (NJ-6401) SUNKISSED (ABT ) AMAZING (B1) SR 4420 (SRX 4820) GRAND SLAM 2L96 (PST-2L96) ARRIVAL (CIS-PR-84) INSPIRE (R8000) BLAZER IV (PICK MDR) SEVILLE II SR 4500 HAWKEYE (SRX 4RHT)

37 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Perennial ryegrass Highest rated four traffic sites in NTEP Trial CITATION FORE (PST-2BR)*MACH 1 (ROBERTS-627* COURAGE (MB 410)MANHATTAN 4 (PST-2CRL RACER II (PICK RC2)SR 4500* PENTIUM (NJ-6401)*GRAND SLAM 2L96 (PST-2L96)* SR 4220 (SRX 4801)*SR 4350 (APR 1237) GATOR 3 (CIS-PR-85)PACESETTER (6011)* STELLAR (CIS-PR-72RADIANT EXACTABLAZER IV (PICK MDR)* KOKOMO (CIS-PR-69)*CATALINA II (PST-CATS)* SEVILLE II*FIESTA 3

38 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Perennial ryegrass Gray leaf spot resistance Important in MidWest, transitional zone and now California California reports in both permanent and overseeded turf Seedlings most vulnerable Warm, moist conditions, especially with less hours of sunlight Rapid advances in resistance

39 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Gray Leaf Spot Resistance Rutgers University Trial 1-9, 9 = Best 2001 Cultivar GLS Res. Quality Peregrine (1425) Integra Pinnacle II AllStar Brightstar II Calypso II Fiesta

40 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Gray Leaf Spot Resistance Rutgers University Trial 1-9, 9 = Best 2002 Cultivar GLS Res. Quality MS1 Comp Integra Select SR 4550 (1557) Integra Amazing Pizzazz

41 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Gray Leaf Spot Resistance 2004 Perennial ryegrass NTEP Gray leaf spot - Rutgers University

42 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Transitional ryegrass Advantages in mixtures Very quick establishment Less expensive seed Lasts only one to two seasons Germination and growth at cooler temp. Moderate green color Improved mowing quality Less mowing requirement than annual Does not overdominate mixtures

43 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Transitional ryegrass Percent Cover Annual, Transitional, Perennial + mixtures. Seeded Feb. 20, Puyallup, WA. TreatmentMarch March April April April April Axcella AR Transeze TR PR Blend TR + PR AR + PR

44 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Transitional ryegrass PR TR AR PR/TR

45 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Tall Fescue Excellent wear tolerance once established Speed of establishment New data Ohio State - new varieties can maintain quality with wear after 15 weeks, spring establishment Speed of repair Rhizomes in new varieties may help Drought tolerance useful many sites Need more winter-active growth

46 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Tall Fescue Highest rated NTEP traffic in New Jersey DOMINION OLYMPIC GOLD ELISA APACHE III (PST-5A1) TULSA II (ATF 706) SR 8550 (SRX 8BE4) MASTERPIECE EXPEDETION (ATF-803) JAGUAR 3 SILVERSTAR (PST-5ASR) ENDEAVOR FOCUS TAR HEEL TEMPEST BINGO RENDITION TITAN LTD. NINJA 2 (ATF-800) SR 8600 TAR HEEL II (PST-5TR1) TOMAHAWK GT WYATT

47 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Tall Fescue Highest rated NTEP traffic in St. Louis, MO ULTIMATE (01-RUTOR2) GUARDIAN-21 (ROBERTS DOL) PADRE (NJ4) 2ND MILLENNIUM AVENGER (L1Z) BLACKWATCH (PICK-OD3-01) BINGO FIREBIRD (CIS-TF-65) DAVINCI (LTP-7801) FINESSE II FORTE (BE-2) GRANDE II PICASSO MATADOR GT (PST-5TUO) REBEL EXEDA SILVERSTAR (PST-5ASR) SR 8550 (SRX 8BE4) ESCALADE (01-ORU1) BILTMORE CONSTITUTION (ATF-593) INFERNO (JT-99) JAGUAR 3

48 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Rhizome Reproduction Underground repair Kentucky bluegrass, creeping red fescue, bermudagrass Present on certain tall fescues, observed on plants Wear, divot repair Soil compaction, season influence repair Use this slide if you are going to use a picture. To make a presentation interesting, you should have images on at least 50% of the slides. Without visuals, you will quickly put people to sleep. You might anyway, but you have a better chance of keeping their attention if you use some nice visuals. Pictures can make the presentation look more professional. Delete this text and place picture in same area, lining picture up with top of yellow text. Use 72dpi jpgs images. To shrink picture proportionally once its on the slide: 1. Click on the picture (note corner handles). 2. Hold down the Shift key, then press and drag a corner handle towards the middle of the picture. 3. Release the Shift key first then the mouse.

49 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Tall Fescue Turf Rhizome 4 inch wide divot cut May 4, 6 weeks growth Tall fescue rhizome 3 inches from mother plant Not as many as in bluegrass More rhizomes observed in fall than spring Use this slide if you are going to use a picture. To make a presentation interesting, you should have images on at least 50% of the slides. Without visuals, you will quickly put people to sleep. You might anyway, but you have a better chance of keeping their attention if you use some nice visuals. Pictures can make the presentation look more professional. Delete this text and place picture in same area, lining picture up with top of yellow text. Use 72dpi jpgs images. To shrink picture proportionally once its on the slide: 1. Click on the picture (note corner handles). 2. Hold down the Shift key, then press and drag a corner handle towards the middle of the picture. 3. Release the Shift key first then the mouse.

50 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Tall Fescue Turf Rhizome 6 week divot repair sand 2 week divot repair sand Use this slide if you are going to use a picture. To make a presentation interesting, you should have images on at least 50% of the slides. Without visuals, you will quickly put people to sleep. You might anyway, but you have a better chance of keeping their attention if you use some nice visuals. Pictures can make the presentation look more professional. Delete this text and place picture in same area, lining picture up with top of yellow text. Use 72dpi jpgs images. To shrink picture proportionally once its on the slide: 1. Click on the picture (note corner handles). 2. Hold down the Shift key, then press and drag a corner handle towards the middle of the picture. 3. Release the Shift key first then the mouse. Grande IILabarinth

51 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Wear tolerance 50 passes OH Treatment NameWear Tol. 1.5 Mowing HeightWear Tol. 3 Mowing Height Bariris KBG Grande ll TF + Rugby ll KBG Rugby ll KBG + Renaissance PRG Aberelf + SR4420 PRG Thermal Blue Texas x KBG hybrid Rendition TF Grande II TF Barlennium PRG Nexus PRG Orfeo KBG Titan, Kittyhawk + Rendition TF Winter Active Fescue (WAF) Showcase KBG + fine fescues Spring Green Festulolium Barfest Festulolium Labyrinth RTF LSD (0.05)1.61.6

52 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Tall Fescue Best results when blended with Kentucky bluegrass - 85 to 90% Tall fescue Blending with Texas x Kentucky hybrids may be useful in stress sites Brown patch reduced in blends Establish in spring or late summer Provide protection against Pythium and seedling brown patch Overseed on yearly basis - Before or after play preferred. Use Transitional ryegrass to patch.

53 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Deschampsia cespitosa Common name is tufted hairgrass Circumpolar native Extends around the globe in the northern hemisphere Middle latitudes found at high altitudes Native in Australia, New Zealand, Argentina Native to United States and Canada

54 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Tufted Hairgrass Attributes suggesting turf potential First colonizer of disturbed sites Tolerant of very low light levels Found in low nitrogen sites Waterlogged sites with high ammonium Sites with heavy wear Acid soil, salt and heavy metal tolerant

55 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Winter wear tolerance Bluegrass STRI Bingley, UK. Merit Dec. 1997, Wear applied from October. Seeded June Kentucky bluegrass, tufted hairgrass, Poa supina and Poa trivialis. Dec. Dec. Cultivar Merit Supra Poa supina5.8 Miracle KBG 2.5 Barcampsia TH 4.8 Solo Poa trivialis 2.5 Julia KBG4.8 Conni KBG 2.2 Albany KBG 4.5 Princeton 2.2 Limousine KBG4.5 Unique KBG 2.0 Ikone KBG4.0 Asset KBG 2.0 Broadway KBG 4.0 NuGlade KBG 1.5 Haga KBG 2.8 Award KBG 1.5 5%0.9

56 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Winter wear tolerance w/ high nitrogen STRI Bingley, UK. Mean Nov. and Dec. 2000, Wear applied from October. Seeded June Perennial rye and tufted hairgrass Cultivar Quality SR 6000 (Voyager) TH 7.0 Gator II PR 6.0 Essence PR6.5 AberImp PR 5.8 Churchill PR6.5 Barclay PR 5.3 Repell PR6.5 Charger II PR 5.2 BAR DC TH6.3 Advent PR 5.2 Barcampsia TH6.2 Elka PR 4.5 Manhattan II PR6.2 Superstar PR 4.3 Paragon PR6.2 Master 4.2 Secretariat6.0 5% 1.2

57 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Winter wear tolerance w/ low nitrogen STRI Bingley, UK. Mean Nov. and Dec. 2000, Wear applied from October. Seeded June Perennial rye and tufted hairgrass Cultivar Quality Ritmo PR6.7 AberImp PR 5.8 SR 6000 (Voyager) TH 6.7 Advent PR 6.0 Churchill PR6.5 Secreteriat PR5.8 BAR DC TH 6.5 Repell PR 5.5 Barcampsia TH 6.5 Yorktown III PR 5.5 Essence PR6.2 Elka PR 5.3 Paragon PR 6.2 Manhattan II PR 4.7 Gator II PR 6.0 Charger II PR 4.3 5%0.9

58 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research 1997 Fine Fescue NTEP Shade trials. Mean of MI and NE Data. Shade Shade Cultivar Mean Quatro SF 6.8 SR 6000 TH 6.0 Jasper II STCRF 6.5 Banner III CF 6.0 Pathfinder6.4 Manhattan II PR 6.2 SR 5100 CF 6.3 Discovery HF 5.6 Oxford HF6.2 Jamestown II CF 5.6 Dawson E+ SLCRF 6.1 SR 3200 BF 5.3 Brittany6.1 Shadow II CF 5.2 Attilla E HF6.0 Treazure CF 4.4 5%1.1

59 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Tufted hairgrass Use for turf in Pacific Northwest Primary sports trials in England. Lower light intensity in winter than PNW. Used in shaded sports fields in UK and Europe. Blended with different species depending on site conditions. Bluegrass use only rust/shade tolerant Tall fescue non-irrigated sites Perennial ryegrass - watch seed rates

60 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Final recommendations Each sports site is unique Stadium shading complicates recommendations Most trials in full sun - Puyallup data useful Most turf trials on soil - look for those on sand Balance local varietal performance data with wear trial data Breeders are working on new varieties and new species for sports turf Work with local sod grower to have replacement turf available - cheaper than artificial


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