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SHARIAHThe Islamic Law. Literal meaning: Plain Way Technical meaning: The Divine Law.

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Presentation on theme: "SHARIAHThe Islamic Law. Literal meaning: Plain Way Technical meaning: The Divine Law."— Presentation transcript:

1 SHARIAHThe Islamic Law

2

3 Literal meaning: Plain Way Technical meaning: The Divine Law

4 SHARIAHThe Islamic Law ثُمَّ جَعَلنَاكَ عَلَى شَرِيعَةٍ مِّنَ الأَمْرِ فَاتَّبِعْهَا وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاء الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ Then We have put you (O Prophet) on a plain way of (our) commandment. So follow it and do not follow the desires of those who do not know. (45:18)

5 SOURCES OF SHARIAH The Sources of Islamic Law The Holy Quran The Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) Ijma (consensus of the Ummah) Qiyas (Anology)

6 THE HOLY QURAN إِنَّا أَنزَلنَا إِلَيْكَ الكِتَابَ بِالحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا أَرَاكَ اللّهُ Surely, We have sent down to you the Book (this Quran) in truth that you might judge between men. (4:105)

7 THE HOLY QURAN Types of Divine Injunctions: Express Injunctions: No room for any interpretation Implied Injunctions: May be interpreted by way of inference

8 THE HOLY QURAN Example: Quran states:.. قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا البَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا وَأَحَلَّ اللّهُ البَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا.....they say: Trade is just like usury ; whereas Allah permits trading and forbids usury … (Surah Baqarah 2: 275)

9 SUNNAH Second Primary Source of Islamic Law Literal meaning: Way Technical meaning: Way of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w)

10 SUNNAH Second Primary Source of Islamic Law Definition A word spoken or an act done or any action ratified by Holy Prophet ( صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ )

11 SUNNAH Second Primary Source of Islamic Law وَأَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ And obey Allah and His Messenger. If you are believers. (Surah Anfal 8:1) فَآمِنُواْ بِاللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ So, believe in Allah and His Messenger, the unlettered Prophet who believes in Allah and His words, and follow him, so that you may be on the right path. (Surah Araf 7:158)

12 SUNNAH Second Primary Source of Islamic Law Example: Hadith states: Gold is to be paid for gold, silver by silver, wheat by wheat, barley by barley, dates by dates, salt by salt, like by like, payment being made hand to hand. He who made an addition to it, or asked for an addition, in fact dealt in usury. [Muslim:Book 10: Hadith The Book of Transactions (Kitab Al-Buyu`)]

13 IJMAConsensus Third Source of Islamic Law Literal meaning: Consensus Technical meaning: Unanimity of the learned people of Ummah of Muhammad on any religious issue

14 IJMAConsensus Third Source of Islamic Law Definition Unanimous decision of Ulama of Ummah on a particular issue in any era.

15 IJMAConsensus Third Source of Islamic Law يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ... مِنكُمْ O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those of you who are in authority... (Surah Nisa 4:59)

16 IJMAConsensus Third Source of Islamic Law وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُولَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الهُدَى وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ المُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّى وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ وَسَاءتْ مَصِيراً And whoever opposes the Messenger after the right path has been shown clearly to him, and follows other than the way of Believers. We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell - what an evil destination. (Surah Nisa 4:115)

17 IJMAConsensus Third Source of Islamic Law Hadith: My Ummah shall never be agreed upon error. (Tirmizi)

18 IJMAConsensus Third Source of Islamic Law Examples: Compilation of the Holy Quran Translation of the Holy Quran

19 QIYASAnalogy Fourth Source of Islamic Law Literal meaning: To measure Technical Meaning: To discover a ruling of Shariah in the light of the basic sources of Islamic law

20 QIYASAnalogy Fourth Source of Islamic Law Definition To apply a recognized rule of Shariah expressly mentioned in the Holy Quran and/or Sunnah to a similar thing and/or situation.

21 QIYASAnalogy Fourth Source of Islamic Law وَمَا كَانَ المُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنفِرُواْ كَآفَّةً فَلَوْلاَ نَفَرَمِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُواْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنذِرُواْ قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ And it is not (proper) for the believers to go out to fight (Jihad) all together. Of every troop of them, a party only should go forth, that they (who are left behind) may get instructions in (Islamic) religion, and that they may warn their people when they return to them, so that they may beware (of evil). (Surah Tauba 9:122)

22 QIYASAnalogy Fourth Source of Islamic Law Hadith: When Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) intended to send Muadh (r.a) to Yemen as a ruler and a Judge, he asked him: How will you decide the issues when it comes to you? Muadh (r.a) replied: I shall decide in the light of the Book of Allah (the Holy Quran). The Holy Prophet (s.a.w) asked: If you do not find it in the Book of Allah (what will you do?) He replied: Then, in the light of the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah. Prophet (s.a.w) asked: If you do not find it even in my Sunnah....

23 QIYASAnalogy Fourth Source of Islamic Law …Muadh (r.a) replied: I shall do Ijtihad on the basis of my understanding and shall not spare any effort (to reach to the truth). On this Prophet (s.a.w) remarked: Praise be to Allah, who has let the Messenger of the Messenger of Allah to do what pleases him. ( Abu Dawud, Hadith#3592)

24 QIYASAnalogy Fourth Source of Islamic Law Example: Prohibition of wine drinking [Al-Maidah 5:90], if it is to be extended to narcotic drugs, the requirement of analogy would be fulfilled in the following manner Asl (original case) Wine Drinking Far (new case)Taking Narcotic Drugs Illah (cause of ruling)Intoxicating Effects Hukm (ruling)Prohibition

25 QIYASAnalogy Fourth Source of Islamic Law Misconceptions: Qiyas is based on rational assessment. Qiyas can be exercised even against the explicit provisions of the Holy Quran and/or Sunnah. Qiyas is meant to find convenience in religion. Corrections: Qiyas is based on Quran and/or Sunnah. Qiyas can not be exercised in those cases where explicit provisions are found in the Holy Quran and/or Sunnah. Qiyas is meant to discover Divine Law regardless to convenience and inconvenience. by Dr. Sheikh Muhammad Ishtiaq


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