Presentation on theme: "Gender Equality and Millennium Development Goals Presented to Rwanda Rotoract Associations Annual Conference Dr Shirley Randell AM, Senior Advisor, Governance."— Presentation transcript:
Gender Equality and Millennium Development Goals Presented to Rwanda Rotoract Associations Annual Conference Dr Shirley Randell AM, Senior Advisor, Governance & Gender, SNV Rwanda
Gender Equality - Difference between sex and gender? - What does gender equality mean? - Why is gender equality important? - What is gender discrimination? - How to achieve gender equality? - How we are mainstreaming gender in Rwanda? - Towards MDG 3 in Rwanda - What can Rotoract do?
SNV Rwanda Sex Sex indicates the biological/physical differences between men and women that we are born with For example men can impregnate and women can give birth and breast-feed Sex is universal Sex is generally not changeable
SNV Rwanda Gender Gender indicates the socially constructed differences between men and women. It refers to the relationships between men and women, boys and girls, and how these are socially constructed. Gender roles are dynamic and change over time.
SNV Rwanda What is Gender Equality? Gender equality is about men and women being valued to the same extent and sharing equally and fully in the process of development, enjoying equal status, recognition and consideration.
SNV Rwanda Why Gender Equality is Important Without the equal participation of women and men there can be no real, sustainable development. The realization of womens and mens full potential, the promotion of human rights, and the equal opportunity to contribute to the betterment of the society are fundamental in the development process.
SNV Rwanda What is Gender Discrimination Gender discrimination is any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of reducing or preventing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by men or women, of their equality, human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.
What is Gender Discrimination (cont) Women and men may be treated differently (restricted or excluded or violated) in the family, the community, the workplace or society due to gender stereotypes: - e.g. when women with suitable qualifications and experience are not promoted to leadership positions because a society believes that only men can make important decisions - or when maternity leave is granted to women after the birth of a child and paternity leave is denied to men.
SNV Rwanda What Gender Discrimination leads to Endemic poverty, inequitable and low economic growth, high HIV/AIDS prevalence, and inadequate governance. Any form of gender discrimination is a denial of human rights, an obstacle to human development.
SNV Rwanda Development IndicatorsFemaleMale Life expectancy at birth 45.6 years42.1 years Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary levels 48.6% 58% Adult literacy rate (age 15 and above) 48.6 %70.5% Estimated earned income (PPP US $) Women living below poverty line $US 985 65.3% $US 1,583 Selected Development Indicators by Sex, Rwanda, 2004
SNV Rwanda Selected Development Indicators by Sex, Rwanda, 2004 Development IndicatorsFemaleMale Total rate of economic activity82.3%93.5% Employment in the non- agricultural sector 24% - Participation in tertiary education 39%61% Participation in Government at Ministerial level 35.7% 64.3% Participation in National Parliament 48% 52%
SNV Rwanda How to achieve Gender Equality? Mainstreaming Gender: T he process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, ensuring that women and men have equal access and control over resources, development benefits and decision-making, at all stages of the development process: –Legislation –Policies –Budgets –Programmes –Projects, and in all areas and at all levels.
SNV Rwanda How to achieve Gender Equality? (cont) Womens empowerment: - central to human development, the process of enlarging peoples choices, which cannot occur when the choices of half of humanity are restricted. - Targeted actions aimed at empowering women and righting gender inequities in the social and economic sphere, as well as in terms of civil and political rights, must be taken alongside efforts to en-gender the development process.
SNV Rwanda How to achieve Gender Equality? (cont) Gender equity: the process of being fair to women and men - the impartial treatment of all people without regard to sex, class, race, age It balances past or current differences that have had a negative impact on women's or men's ability to participate fully in families, communities, organisations and societies with specific actions or interventions
SNV Rwanda Gender Equity Development programs, policies and projects affect men and women differently - and this often calls for special measures to "level the playing field". For example, programs to improve educational access and achievement for girls, so that they can catch up with boys, is an equitable way to achieve equality in access to resources.
Towards MDG 3 Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
SNV Rwanda Indicators Indicator 9: Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education. Indicator 10: Ratio of literate females to males of 15-24 year olds. Indicator 11 :Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector. Indicator 12: Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament.
SNV Rwanda Towards MDG 3 Planned Activities The important issues for women in development to achieve MDG 3 will be addressed within targeted Ministries PRIMATURE - MIGEPROF (To monitor gender policy and practice in all Ministries) - MININFORM (To ensure a better reflection of women and gender issues in media) MINEDUC (To ensure the same ratio of boys to girls in primary, secondary and tertiary education and in literate women to men 15-24 year olds)
SNV Rwanda Towards MDG 3 (cont) MINECOFIN (To ensure a gender responsive budget and incorporation of gender issues in the planned activities of the Government of Rwanda) MINIJUST (To eliminate gender discrimination in law, the family, property rights, violence against women) MINISANTE (To reduce infant and maternal mortality rates, HIV/AIDS) MINAGRIC (To empower women and men in modern agricultural and livestock technology
SNV Rwanda Towards MDG 3 (cont) MINALOC (To encourage women & men to access administrative and leadership positions and integrate gender in decentralisation process) MIFOTRA (To enhance mens and womens rights and opportunities in the work sphere) National Police (To sensitise police officers on violence against women)
SNV Rwanda Towards MDG 3 (cont) Support for women entrepreneurs Increase the share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Ensure gender equity in employment Change the social perception of women in the work sphere Encourage the participation of women in the labour market by a proper working environment and facilities for women
SNV Rwanda Rwanda Women in Rwanda are subjected to various forms of violence because existing gender relations invariably place them in a subordinate position in the socioeconomic, legal and cultural context. Although the Rwanda Constitution guarantees equality before the law and equal protection under the law for all citizens, the principle is often ignored with respect to womens rights.
SNV Rwanda Rwanda Challenge In a country like Rwanda where poverty is acute, there is the need for the full cooperation of both men and women in all spheres of life. This is the challenge that Rwanda faces to assist people to learn, to cooperate, to respect each other, to build together their country.
SNV Rwanda –But what is happening in other parts of the world
SNV Rwanda Man of the Year Awards for Gender Discrimination 3rd Place goes to: Albania
SNV Rwanda 2nd Place goes to: Serbia
SNV Rwanda And the Winner of the year is Ireland!
SNV Rwanda Gender is about Men and Women When we talk about gender, we often talk more about women to ensure the positive changes needed in our society. Gender is a human issue, which deals with both women and men Gender is often overlooked as an aspect of mens identity. Cultural norms and practices about masculinity and expectations of men as leaders, husbands and sons (gender) are important in shaping the demands on men and their behavior.
SNV Rwanda The Role of Men in Achieving Gender Equality Equality implies changes for both men and women More equal relationships will need to be based on a redefinition of the rights & responsibilities of women and men in all spheres - family, community, workplace and society Men and women participate as partners in the process of a more gender-equal society.
SNV Rwanda Possible Rotoract Projects Opportunity for comparative research between countries Sex-disaggregated data collection - numbers of women and men in decision-making committees and management, teaching, service staff positions - numbers of male and female students men in different faculties - Gender analysis of budget allocations Gender analysis of research and publications, curriculum and materials, and organisational rules, regulations and procedures for gender sensitivity
SNV Rwanda Rotoract Projects (cont) Development of university policies on gender, sexual harassment, human resources – recruitment, promotion, training Development of gender equity policies for women in law, engineering etc, women in management Developing gender-friendly culture, practices and physical infrastructure in universities, e.g. accommodation, sanitation
SNV Rwanda Education Projects at School Level. Informing and motivating girls to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics
SNV Rwanda Rotoract Projects (cont ) Study on violence in the universities and implementing strategies to reduce it Peer education programs on gender for students, community Analysis of mens and womens working days
SNV Rwanda Womens Double Day
SNV Rwanda Rotoract Projects (cont) HIV/AIDS and gender, empowering women in relationships and promoting more gender-equitable norms and behaviors among young men as an HIV/AIDS prevention strategy interactive group education sessions, and community-wide social- marketing campaigns promoting condom use and gender-equity messages