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Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf An Inquiry into the Brain, Learning and Teaching Practice: Review, Strategies.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf An Inquiry into the Brain, Learning and Teaching Practice: Review, Strategies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf An Inquiry into the Brain, Learning and Teaching Practice: Review, Strategies & Applications for Consideration c 2009

2 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf What is Learning? Collect a series of ideas about optimal learning while were convening today. From these ideas, develop a model (more than words alone) of learning as you see it. Ill provide brief, intermittent moments for you to give this thought as we proceed.

3 Can research from the field of neuroscience really inform educational practices? Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Some say not yet, however ~ ~ there are important signs…

4 The human brain is wonderful. It starts working the moment you wake up in the morning and doesnt stop until youre called on in class. Brown experience Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

5 Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and the Brain G. Christian Jernstedt ~ Dartmouth College, 2004 The biological limits to our potential are relatively minimal compared to the cultural and environmental limits. There are sound and weak techniques of learning and teaching, more than bright and dull minds. We can now consider our own philosophy of teaching, our own goals for what will happen for our students, the methods we use and would like to use to help our students learn, and the outcomes we typically achieve.

6 Myths & Clarifications Statement: We only use a fraction of our brains capacity. Myth or Reality? Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf * 2X-Sec…

7 General Cellular Level Information Each fires 2x second…. or more 100 Billion Neurons Each as complicated as a major city [David Eagleman,2008] 10,000 dendrites per neuronconnections to other cells The brain entertains 400 Billion impulses per second ~ yet only 2,000 make it to the Reticular Activating System (to be processed for memory) [Judy Willis, 2008] % of activity

8 Superior Spearman g: 162 I.Q. slide by Dr. Rex Jung ~ Mind Institute, 2007 Left Hemisphere Gray Matter Right Hemisphere White Matter Myths & Clarifications Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Localization Statement: The left and right hemispheres of the brain operate independently. [Myth]

9 Slide by Dr. Judy Willis, M.D., M.Ed Levels of Activation & Areas of the Brain * If we add areas for visual (not seeing) as an overlay on these areas of activationWed have most of the brain covered!!

10 Brain Areas / Anatomy (Macro) Slide by Michael Kaplan, Yale, 2008

11 Cellular Micro-Perspective: Production of Long-term Memory 9 new proteins synthesized 10 connectivity is strengthened The Search for the Memory Switch Rusiko Bourtchoiuladse, Cerebrum, 2002 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf New proteins synthesized

12 Overarching Educational Benefit to date from the Neuroscience Literature: ALL teaching / learning practices must be geared to address long-term memory and recall. Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

13 (Human Behavior ~ Education Application) Processes in the Formation of Memory see smell taste sound touch Most inputs depart quickly. Input Some inputs are processed more thoroughly than others. Integration Our nervous system filters and regulates inputs that initiate memory making paths… or not! Sensory Input & Integration Sensory Processing Level Process When we draw on what is in the barn in the processing phase, we enhance the likelihood that new information or skills will make their way into "the barn. Desktop Processing Short-Term, Working, or Continuous Memory Processing Level Elaboration How interconnected is the information? How strong are the connections? Recall : is the information readily retrievalbe? The Barn: Long-Term Memory Processing Level Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Source: Brain Based Teaching, Blue cars

14 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf What is Learning? Work on YOUR key ideas for a Moment 1 Intermittent Pause

15 Brain Systems a la Given Five natural learning systems of the brain… That cut across all areas, lobes and regions. Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Source: Barbara Given, Teaching to the Brains Natural Learning Systems

16 How do Brain Areas Interconnect? 5 NATURAL LEARNING SYSTEMS of the Brain Barbara Given, GMU ~ Krasnow Institute Cognitive Learning System: Interprets, stores, and retrieves information ~ Caveat: Can be overrun by the stress response system Emotional Learning System: Personal meaning ~ relevance Empowers / energizes or depresses / stifles all learning ~ Caveat: Generates powerful vehicles for enhancing memory or likewise powerful inhibitors and blockers Given, Barbara. Teaching to the Brains Natural Learning Systems, ASCD, 2002

17 NATURAL LEARNING SYSTEMS (cont.) Social Learning System: Governs interactions, teamwork and communications with others. ~Caveat: Acquiring social skills is crucial to long-term productivity Physical Learning System: Gathers information through all senses. Distributes information throughout the brain and the body. Involves movement, body in space, light, diet, sleep… ~Caveat: Takes longer to establish, however is more often sustained Reflective Learning System: Weighs past, present, and future projections. Metacognates. ~Caveat: Learning Systems always operate within a context. Given, Barbara. Teaching to the Brains Natural Learning Systems, ASCD, 2002

18 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf What is Learning? Work on YOUR key ideas for a Moment 1 Intermittent Pause

19 9 Most Effective Strategies for Achievement a la Marzano et. al PERCENTILE NUMBER CATEGORY GAIN Of STUDIES Identifying Similarities and Differences45% 31 Summarizing and Note Taking 34% 21 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 29% 21 Homework and Practice 28% 134 Nonlinguistic Representation 27% 246 Cooperative Learning 27% 122 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback23% 63 Generating and Testing Hypotheses23% 63 Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers22% 1,251 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf "CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION THAT WORKS"

20 9 Most Effective Strategies for Achievement a la Marzano et. al PERCENTILE NUMBER CATEGORY GAIN Of STUDIES Identifying Similarities and Differences45% 31 Summarizing and Note Taking 34% 21 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 29% 21 Homework and Practice 28% 134 Nonlinguistic Representation 27% 246 Cooperative Learning 27% 122 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback23% 63 Generating and Testing Hypotheses23% 63 Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers22% 1,251 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Modeling directly employs most, if not all!

21 Three lenses for exploring Long-Term Memory and Recall as it applies to our practice. Statement: S/he who does the work, learns. #1: Who is doing the work of learning in your classroom? Statement: The formation of long-term memory requires more than participation. It requires active processing. #2: What must the learner actually do in order to complete the task assigned? Statement: No meaning, no long-term memory. #3: What context or personal connection(s) to the curriculum does the learner experience in their mind? Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

22 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf What is Learning? Work on YOUR key ideas ~ toward a model ~ for a Moment 1 Intermittent Pause

23 Strategy #2 The Creation & Development of Meaning Meaning = Personal meaning, purpose, context… to the learner Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

24 3 Questions: !!! Pay CAREFUL attention to how YOUR brain processes these !!! Q #1: Penny Q #2: Pledge Q #3: Phone Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

25 The Formation of Memory BOTTOM LINE: The mental conclusion of not important suggests that little meaning (value) is indicated. That which has only minimal impact on learners can, by definition, have no significant emotional base for retention. No Meaning ~ No Sustained (LTM) Memory !! * (read aloudPARIS) Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

26 Please read aloud: I LOVE PARIS IN THE THE SPRINGTIME * (Try next…) Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

27 What color is this box? Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

28 Reflective Question: What is the difference between students recognizing something and knowing something? Dr. Betty Garner, Getting to Got It, ASCD, 2007

29 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf What is Learning? Work on YOUR key ideas/a model of optimal learning for a moment 1 Intermittent Pause Chat with a neighbor about one of your current thoughts.

30 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Dual Coding Theory and Bi-Modal Memory Packet Formation: Moving Toward Modeling as an Interdisciplinary Approach. c April 19, 2009

31 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Illustration of Visual Locations in the Brain Occipital Lobe

32 Visual Imagery a la Stephen Kosslyn, Department of Psychology, Harvard Assoc. Psychologist in Neurology, MGH Mental images have the same effect on the mind and body as the actual activity/situation. Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

33 Visual Imagery a la Stephen Kosslyn, Department of Psychology, Harvard Assoc. Psychologist in Neurology, MGH Image Rotation Rotate the Letter N below, 90 degrees counter-clockwise…. What do you get? N Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

34 Visual Imagery Paired Words Exercise A la Steven Koslyn, 2006 Quasi-experiment: Form two groups (This is an individual-based, silent activity) I will speak a list of paired words, like: SquirrelDoughnut As you hear the pair of words: Group #1 repeats words over and over (silently to themselves) avoiding visual processing Group #2 explicitly creates visual links between the two words/items Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

35 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf What is Learning? Work on YOUR Key Ideas/Concepts/Model for a Moment 1 Intermittent Pause

36 Dual Coding Theory Bi-modal memory packets: The formation of long-term memory & recall When both VERBAL and VISUAL elements are EXPLICITLY and SIMULTANEOUSLY represented & actively processed … the formation of memory is more powerful and sustained. Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Source: Memory, Recall, the Brain & Learning, 2005

37 Dual Coding Theory Crude Bi-modal Representation Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf VerbalVisual Context Availability

38 Visuo-Spatial Components In Reading The phone is in Marks pocket. Mark is in the car. The car is on the BQE (expressway) in NYC. Where is the phone? To have meaning, the mind contextualizes visually. Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

39 Control Read very carefully to remember as best you can. Same assessment (recall and comprehension) Dual-Coding Cover the text after each section and make a quick picture in your head. Dual-Coding group outperforms DESIGN: Matched Subject Groups Same Reading Task

40 Dual Coding Research Mental Imagery Training & Comprehension Gambrell & Bales, th & 5 th grade poor readers Short training session encouraging students to make pictures in their head while reading Control group was told to do whatever they could to understand and remember while reading The reading passages included both explicit and implicit inconsistencies in the text Students were instructed to determine if there was anything not clear or easy to understand. Results: The imagery group identified both types of inconsistencies more than TWICE as well as the control group. Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

41 Dual Coding Research Degree of Importance, Emotional Response & Degree of Spontaneous Imagery and Recall ~ Sadoski, Goetz & Kangiser (1988) Students read literary short stories and articles from magazines. Students rated each paragraph (5 point scale) for: 1. The degree of imagery experienced 2. The degree of emotional response evoked 3. The level of importance of the information. Results: 16 days later, the recall on highly rated imagery and emotion paragraphs was high, but recall on paragraphs rated high on importance was not. Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

42 Conservation of Constancy The languages of Numeracy Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf ¾

43 Nonlinguistic Representations Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf While most books are lavishly illustrated, these representations are rarely helpful because they are too abstract, needlessly complicated, or inadequately explained. Wiggins & McTighe, UbD, ASCD 2005 OR… non-central to the concepts and essential big ideas, thus primarily a distraction. Greenleaf, 2008

44 MAPS: * Teacher Generated * Student Generated * Class Generated Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Source: Memory, Recall, the Brain & Learning, 2005

45 More specific Hogwarts Ground Floor Map Harry Potter Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

46 Reflective Question on Visual-Spatial What are the instructional implications of students being unaware of location, distance, direction and perspective? How do these affect the way students gather, process and express information? Relationships? Dr. Betty Garner, Getting to Got It, ASCD, 2007

47 Odyssey Map Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

48 Maps and Visual Images for Context Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Distance, direction, Relative location, time…

49 Maps and Visual Images for Context Laura Ingalls Wilder Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Television Website

50 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf What is Learning? Work on YOUR Ideas/Model for a Moment 1 Intermittent Pause

51 Without speaking, raise your hand if you recall the name of the equation below. y = m x + b NY state experience Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

52 What is each of these unknowns trying to represent? Y = m x + b Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

53 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Source: Memory, Recall, the Brain & Learning, Slope Intercept ~ done bi-modally ? ?

54 Graphic Organizers ~ provide visual cues regarding the relationship of information and ideas. External structures, like graphic organizers, can serve to guide internal processing, thus assisting in the formation of memory networks for improved organization & recall. Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Source: Memory, Recall, the Brain & Learning, 2005

55 Basic Graphic Organizers Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Source: Memory, Recall, the Brain & Learning, History 1. __________ 2. __________ 3. __________ 4. __________ Characters 1. __________ 2. __________ 3. __________ 4. __________ Geography 1. __________ 2. __________ 3. __________ 4. __________

56 Word Acquisition Template Descriptor The Word or Concept Descriptor Picture or PhotoStudent Generated Drawing or Illustration Definition ~ filled out last

57 Word #1 Descriptors-(cues) Drawing Word #4 Descriptors-(cues) Drawing Word #2 Descriptors-(cues) Drawing Word #3 Descriptors-(cues) Drawing Word #5 Descriptors-(cues) Drawing Word #6 Descriptors-(cues) Drawing Vocabulary Bookmark Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

58 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf What is Learning? Work on YOUR Ideas/Model for a Moment 1 Intermittent Pause

59 Photographs drain ideas/feelings/meaning & can be used to generate text

60 In depth examination ~ followed by interpretation It is The Germans have just left Paris and the collaborators are being….

61

62 Learners weather Tropical winter seasons storms sun Clouds snow burn summer desert rain change wind Plants grow hurricanes Leaves fall jungles thunder Pre-Study Representation Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

63 NLR: Strategy #22 or #33 Talking Elements Provide a reason for the dialogue. 1. What would Fe &O2 have to talk about? Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

64 NLR: Strategy #22 or #33 Talking Elements What would Fe &O2 have to talk about? Lets get together and make a little rust! Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf FeO 2

65 NLR: Strategy #22 or #33 Talking Elements What would Na & Cl say to each other? Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

66 NLR: Strategy #22 or #33 Talking Elements What would Na & Cl say to each other? Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf We Lets spice things up! Lets make salt!

67 NLR: Strategy #22 or #33 Talking Elements What would Cu, Ag, and Au say to each other? Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

68 NLR: Strategy #22 or #33 Talking Elements What would Cu, Ag, and Au say to each other? Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf No higher resolution avail Lets form a heavy metal band. Black Sabbath KISS

69 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf What is Learning? Work on YOUR Model of Optimal Learning for a Moment 1 Intermittent Pause

70 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Has Your Model of Learning Evolved? What pleases, surprises, comes to your attention about what youve generated?

71 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf Please feel free to if you have questions!

72 Visual Mind & Modeling Before language is acquired, the mind works on a level of Spatial Representations (essentially, geometric shapes and forces) and language (spoken, verbal, written, symbolic) is at the next level, what is sometimes called the Conceptual Reasoning level. Most teaching and learning takes place at this language level, and a great deal of it is memorization. The teacher presents material to be learned, sometimes provides a conceptual framework within which to place it, and expects the student to reproduce this knowledge on exams. Reconstructed from excerpts by Carole Hamilton, 2009 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf

73 Visual Mind & Modeling When students create their own conceptual frameworks, at the level of spatial representation, they are placing their theoretical knowledge where it can be called up to be applied in new settings. (transfer!!) Students need to be called upon to explore and re-map their understandings in ways that alter spatial representations to correct theories, theories that they can see as working and that they can defend against questions and alternative spatial representations. When students draw out the relationships between ideas, they are operating at the spatial reasoning level. Reconstructed from excerpts by Carole Hamilton, 2009 Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf


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