2Through research and interviews, our group was able to obtain information about the inter-workings of the WIC program. We discovered how helpful this program is, the positive effects it has on pregnant and single low-income mothers and their unborn or young children. In a society where public assistance programs are surrounded by an aura of stigmatism, WIC is a provider of nutritious food, the most frequently purchased infant formula and overall help to those who are working and trying to raise children simultaneously while on a low-income budget.
3What is it?The special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and childrenMore than 7.5 million people receive WIC benefits each monthPurpose is to safeguard the health of low-income women, infants, and children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk
4What is it? (Cont.)Nutritious foods are provided to supplement the diet, nutrition education and counseling, screenings, and referrals to other health, welfare, and social servicesAvailable in every state and every countyIt is a federal block grant program. Congress authorizes a specific amount (5.235 billion in 2005) of funds each year for the program and it is administered by Food and Nutrition Services
5Eligibility Must meet the following requirements: Categorical- Pregnant women (through end of pregnancy), breastfeeding (up to infant’s first birthday), non-breastfeeding postpartumResidential-Applicants must live in the state in which they apply, they may be required to live in a local service area and apply at a WIC clinic that serves that area, applicants are not required to live in the area for a certain amount of timeIncome- (In )- less than or equal to 185% of the poverty guidelines
7Eligibility (Cont.)Nutrition Risk-Applicants must be seen by a nutritionist who determines whether the individual is at nutrition risk. “Nutrition risk” means that an individual has medical or dietary-based conditions.Examples of medical-based risks include: diabetes, hypertension, anemia, younger than 16, any severe medical condition, short time between pregnancies, etc.Examples of diet-based risks would include: under-or-over weight for height, malnourishment, poor dietary intake, smoking, drugs, etc.Automatic Income Eligibility- Those eligible to receive Food Stamps, Medicaid, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), or other state-administered programs
8WIC Food PackagesTargeted nutrients are protein, calcium, iron, vitamins A & CThese tend to be low in the diets of the population that WIC servesWIC determines what foods you can get to meet nutritional needs
9Major Foods Provided Milk Juice Cereal Eggs Cheese Peanut butter Carrots (for breastfeeding women only)Tuna (for breastfeeding women only)Beans*The amount and types of foods depend on whether the food is being provided for an infant (up to 12 months), a child up to five years, a pregnant woman, a non-breastfeeding woman (post-partum, up to six months), or a breastfeeding woman (up to one year).Specifications are given for the forms that each food is allowed to be purchased in
11WIC STATISTICSCongress appropriated $5.235 billion for WIC in Fiscal Year 2005$33.69 per person in Ohio per monthApproximately 267, 300 caseloads in the State of Ohio122,884 are children81,382 are infants63,034 are women
12WIC STATISTICS (cont.)Total of 3464 people receiving WIC aid monthly in 2001 in Allen County267,300 in Ohio alone in 2004WIC cannot currently serve all eligible peopleApproximately 74% of those eligible are served.Once a local WIC agency reaches is max caseload vacancies are filled based WIC determined priority levels Found at (http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/FAQs/faq.htm#7)
13Residents Served Monthly by WIC Program - Allen County 2001 WIC STATISTICS (cont.)Residents Served Monthly by WIC Program - Allen County 2001WomenInfantsChildrenTOTALWhite6377181,1172,472Black185258430873Hispanic111840American IndianAsian26Other33634738381,0251,6013,464
15WIC BENEFITS Reduces fetal deaths and infant mortality Reduces low birth weight rates and increases the duration of pregnancyImproves the growth of nutritionally at-risk infants and childrenDecreases the incidence of iron deficiency anemia in childrenImproves the dietary intake of pregnant and postpartum women and improves weight gain in women
16WIC BENEFITS (cont)Pregnant women in WIC receive prenatal care earlierChildren are more likely to have a regular source of medical care and immunizationsChildren who receive WIC benefits demonstrate improved intellectual developmentSIGNIFICANTLY improves children’s diets
17WIC BENEFITS (cont) WIC INFANT FORMULA REBATE SYSTEM Mothers are encouraged to breastfeed their children, but WIC State agencies provide infant formula for those who choose not to breastfeedWIC State agencies are legally required to have competitively bid infant formula rebate contracts with infant formula manufacturersStores are required to supply at least one brand from a number of brands.
18WIC BENEFITS (cont)The brand varies based on each State’s individual rebate contractDue to this requirement State WIC agencies have been able to serve more people.In 2003 rebate savings were $1.52 billionThis made it possible for WIC to support approx. 1.9 million extra participantsOr, approx. 25% of the estimated average monthly caseload
19Typical Grocery List (per month) A woman participant receives 5 gallons of milk, 2 pounds of cheese, 2 dozen eggs, 2 boxes of iron-enriched cereal, 2 gallons of juice and 1 jar of peanut butter OR 1 pound of beans each month.A typical infant that is not breastfeeding receives 31 cans of iron-fortified formula monthly.1 child receives 4 gallons of milk, 1 pound of cheese, 1 dozen eggs, 2 boxes of iron-enriched cereal, 1 gallon of juice and 1 jar of peanut butter or 1 pound of beans each month.
20Process of obtaining WIC foods Potential participant applies through the Ohio Department of Health, where she is issued a coupon based on her health. This coupon entitles her to a certain amount of food in the grocery store per month.She presents the coupon upon purchasing her items, the grocery store then submits it back to the Department of Health, and they reimburse the store for the products.
21Vendor ContractsGrocery stores must apply for the right to carry WIC foods, and are granted a contract which is valid for 1-3 years.Before becoming authorized, the administration must attend a WIC training program.2 types of contracts offered:1. regular (Ohio Dept. of Health reimburses the actual amount of sale to vendor.)2. Cost-Containment (grocery store will not accept more than 80% of the lowest cost of the products. For example, the amount printed on the food is $10. The actual sale price of the food is $ The Ohio Dept. of Health reimburses the vendor $8.
22Sources http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/ http://odh.state.ohio.us/ Myers, Deborah Prof. Public Health, Nutrition, and Policy Lecture Notes. Bluffton University, 2005.