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Planning a Healthy Diet. Diet Principles and Dietary Guidelines these two items should be considered each time we make a choice of what goes into our.

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Presentation on theme: "Planning a Healthy Diet. Diet Principles and Dietary Guidelines these two items should be considered each time we make a choice of what goes into our."— Presentation transcript:

1 Planning a Healthy Diet

2 Diet Principles and Dietary Guidelines these two items should be considered each time we make a choice of what goes into our mouth these two items should be considered each time we make a choice of what goes into our mouth

3 Diet Planning 6 basic diet planning principles 6 basic diet planning principles –adequacy enough energy and nutrients (all) are included in the diet to meet the needs of healthy people enough energy and nutrients (all) are included in the diet to meet the needs of healthy people –balance consuming the right amount of each type of food – not too much, not too little consuming the right amount of each type of food – not too much, not too little

4 kCalories (energy) kCalories (energy) –energy in from food = energy out for metabolism and activities –choose foods of high nutrient density nutrient density nutrient density –choose foods that give you the most nutrient for the least food energy –empty-kcalorie foods deliver only energy, little or no protein vitamins, minerals deliver only energy, little or no protein vitamins, minerals

5 moderation moderation variety variety –vary your choices, even wishing a food group different foods contain different nutrients different foods contain different nutrients eating nutritiously shouldnt be boring eating nutritiously shouldnt be boring

6 Dietary Guidelines Aim for a healthy weight. Be physically active each day. Let the Pyramid guide your food choices. Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily. Keep food safe to eat. Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars. Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat. Choose and prepare foods with less salt. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation.

7 Diet-Planning Guide food group plans food group plans –sort foods of similar origin and nutrient content into groups exchange lists exchange lists –organizes food by proportions of carbs, fats, proteins

8 Food Group Plan easy way to create a balanced diet easy way to create a balanced diet –just select foods from the 5 groups, according to the rules number of recommended serving is listed number of recommended serving is listed lists the foods according to their nutrient density lists the foods according to their nutrient density BREADS, CEREALS, AND OTHER GRAIN PRODUCTS 6 TO 11 SERVINGS PER DAY

9 Food Group Plan VEGETABLES: 3 TO 5 SERVINGS PER DAY FRUITS: 2 TO 4 SERVINGS PER DAY

10 Food Group Plan MEAT, POULTRY, FISH, AND ALTERNATES: 2 TO 3 SERVINGS PER DAY MILK, CHEESE, AND YOGURT: 2 SERVINGS PER DAY

11 Food Group Plan FATS, SWEETS, AND ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES: USE SPARINGLY

12 Food Guide Pyramid Milk, Yogurt & Cheese Group 2–3 servings Food Guide Pyramid A Guide to Daily Food Choices The breadth of the base shows that grains (breads, cereals, rice, and pasta) deserve most emphasis in the diet. The tip is smallest: use fats, oils, and sweets sparingly. Fats, Oils & Sweets Use sparingly Fat (naturally occurring and added) Key: Fat (naturally occurring and added) Sugars (added) These symbols show fats, oils and added sugars in foods. Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs & Nuts Group 2– 3 servings Fruit Group 2–4 servings Bread, Cereal, Rice & Pasta Group 6 –11 servings Vegetable Group 3–5 servings

13 Portion Size 1 c cooked vegetables = a fist 1 c cooked vegetables = a fist 1 medium fruit = a baseball 1 medium fruit = a baseball ¼ c dried fruit = a golf ball ¼ c dried fruit = a golf ball 3 oz. of meat = deck of cards 3 oz. of meat = deck of cards 2 tbs peanut butter = a marshmallow 2 tbs peanut butter = a marshmallow 1 ½ oz cheese = 6 stacked dice 1 ½ oz cheese = 6 stacked dice ½ c ice cream = a racquetball ½ c ice cream = a racquetball 4 small cookies = 4 poker chips 4 small cookies = 4 poker chips

14 Energy Requirements

15 75% of a days food should come from grains, vegetables and fruits 75% of a days food should come from grains, vegetables and fruits

16 Vegetarian Food Guide vegetarians eat mainly plant foods vegetarians eat mainly plant foods –grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits, seeds, nuts –may include eggs and/or milk products –food groups are similar meat alternates are selected meat alternates are selected

17 Perception vs. Actual Intake our choices often dont measure up to what we should be eating our choices often dont measure up to what we should be eating

18 Healthy Eating Index established by the USDA to determine how well a diet meets recommendations established by the USDA to determine how well a diet meets recommendations Food Guide Pyramid Total fat Saturated fat Cholesterol Sodium Variety

19 Shortcomings to the Pyramid not all fats are bad not all fats are bad refined products are grouped with whole grains refined products are grouped with whole grains USDA is revisiting the Pyramid USDA is revisiting the Pyramid

20 Exchange Lists Appendix G another source for planning a good diet another source for planning a good diet –foods are sorted according to energy-nutrient contents cheeses and meats: both provide energy from protein cheeses and meats: both provide energy from protein –carb group: starch, fruit, milk, others, veggies (non-starchy) –meat/meat substitute group: very lean, lean, medium-fat, high fat –fat group

21 Plan a Diet for the Day

22 Groceries how do you plan a healthy diet? how do you plan a healthy diet? –start with what you like and build on that think food groups and nutrient- rich think food groups and nutrient- rich –most food is processed treated to change physical, chemical microbiological or sensory properties treated to change physical, chemical microbiological or sensory properties

23 Bread, Grain, Cereal Terms fortified fortified –addition of nutrients to a food refined refined –course parts of food are removed

24 Terms enriched enriched –adding nutrients back to food that were lost in processing whole grain whole grain –grain in its entirety (less the husk)

25 A Wheat Plant Whole-grain products contain much of the germ and bran, as well as the endosperm; that is why they are so nutritious. The protective coating of bran around the kernel of grain is rich in nutrients and fiber. The endosperm contains starch and proteins. The germ is the seed that grows into a wheat plant, so it is especially rich in vitamins and minerals to support new life. The outer husk (or chaff) is the inedible part of a grain. Refined white grain products contain only the endosperm. Even with nutrients added back, they are not as nutritious as whole-grain products, as the next figure shows. Common types of flour: White flouran endosperm flour that has been refined and bleached for maximum softness and whiteness. Unbleached floura tan-colored endosperm flour with texture and nutritive qualities that approximate those of regular white flour. Wheat flourany flour made from wheat, including white flour; wheat flour has been refined whereas whole-wheat flour has not. Whole-wheat flourflour made from whole-wheat kernels; a whole-grain flour.

26 Nutrients in Bread Whole-grain bread Enriched white bread Unenriched white bread Percentage of nutrients as compared with whole-grain bread

27 Grocery Guidelines choose choose –whole-grain regularly –fresh vegetables raw, frozen, cooked, canned (without salt) are OK raw, frozen, cooked, canned (without salt) are OK –legumes beans and peas beans and peas cheap, high in fiber cheap, high in fiber

28 chose chose –fresh fruits, mostly citrus frozen, dried, canned without sugar are OK frozen, dried, canned without sugar are OK –meat, fish and chicken with minimal fat –fat-free or low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese

29 Food Labels read them read them ingredient list ingredient list –found on all labels –foods listed in descending order by predominance by weight

30 Food Labels serving size serving size –specific sizes have been established by the FDA all labels for a given product use the same serving size all labels for a given product use the same serving size –all ice cream is ½ cup

31 Food Labels nutrition facts nutrition facts –presented as quantities and percentages percentages are called Daily Values percentages are called Daily Values

32 Daily Values aids consumers in choosing food that contributes a little or a lot of nutrient aids consumers in choosing food that contributes a little or a lot of nutrient –greater than or equal to 20% is a high or excellent source of nutrient –10-19% = good source

33 The name and address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor Quantities of nutrients as % Daily Values based on a 2000-kcalorie energy intake The ingredients in descending order of predominance by weight kCalorie per gram reminder Daily Values reminder for selected nutrients for a and a kcalorie diet kCalorie information and quantities of nutrients per serving, in actual amounts The serving size and number of servings per container Approved health claims stated in terms of the total diet The net contents in weight, measure, or count Approved nutrient claims if the product meets specified criteria The common or usual product name

34 Nutrient Claims have to meet FDA definitions have to meet FDA definitions High", "Rich In", or "Excellent Source Of" Contains 20% or more of the Daily Value (DV) to describe protein, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, or potassium per reference amount. May be used on meals or main dishes to indicate that product contains a food that meets definition. May not be used for total carbohydrate.

35 Health Claims FDAs A list FDAs A list –extensive scientific evidence to establish a clear link

36 Structure-Function Claim must not mention a disease or symptom must not mention a disease or symptom ©May reduce the risk of heart disease. ©Promotes a healthy heart

37 Food labels and the accompanying information are invaluable. Take the time to read them and use them in making wise choices and planning a healthy diet.


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