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2.3.1 Urban Land Market URBAN LAND MARKET UPA Package 2, Module 3.

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Presentation on theme: "2.3.1 Urban Land Market URBAN LAND MARKET UPA Package 2, Module 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 2.3.1 Urban Land Market URBAN LAND MARKET UPA Package 2, Module 3

2 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 2 The Urban Markets The dimensions of markets: product; quantity and price. Conditions of land Markets : land for development or transfer, sellers and buyers, open and free transaction, dynamic price, information intensive, and competition. Land market mechanism Land tenure system Land policies and government intervention

3 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 3 Bring buyer and seller together to facilitate transactions Set prices for land Quantity of land offered for sale equals the quantity of land demanded Land prices play an important role in ensuring that land is efficiently used Urban Land Market Performs Four Functions

4 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 4 Demand and Supply Factors Needs,demand and desire Direct demand and derived demand The law of demand Physical supply and economic supply Physical land supply can be elastic The law of supply

5 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 5 Urban Land Markets in Developing Countries Understanding land markets in African urban areas: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Land markets in urban Africa have not been well studied. There is considerable evidence that most landowners in urban Africa obtain land by way of purchasing it from recognized owners, be they in the planned or in the unplanned sector. A study gives insights into some aspects of the land markets in urban Africa, taking the case of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania as an example.

6 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 6 China's land market: -- Current situation, problems and. development trends. Urban Land Markets in Developing Countries Recommended Reading: The role and function of land market in market economy --David E. Dowall The Nature of the Market -- Annette Hurrelmann The price of land –- extracted from The Mega-city of Latin American Is the Real Estate Market Voluntary? -- Fred E. Foldvary Example Understanding land markets in African urban areas: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania --J. M. L. Kironde

7 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 7 China's land market came into being to serve the needs of the development of a socialist-market economy. As a result of the reforms and development that have been carried out in the past seven years, China's land market had come into shape as a system. Urban Land Markets in Developing Countries

8 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 8 Land Market and in Urban Economy Land is the platform for economic activity. Land market as the main vehicle to invest,transfer wealth. Land use allocation influences urban economy. Infrastructure allocation influences urban productivity. Land use and infrastructure influence market efficiency. Urban economy influence land use, land markets. Land market distortion retard urban economic growth. Economic productivity related to revenues/costs. Land market related to urban labour market, capital market.

9 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 9 Reading: Land Price As A Cause Of Poverty --Winston Churchill's Informality, Urban Poverty and Land Market Prices Article --Smolka, Martim O Land Market and in Urban Economy

10 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 10 Land Prices and Land Bids The most important Factors affect the level of land price bids: Type of development Density of development Location of plot Cost of construction Cost of infrastructure Cost of financing Taxes Demand for development Supply of land Level of competition

11 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 11 An Efficient Land Market: Characteristics Efficient The system governing the the land market encourages quick development and transaction of land. Government has goals for land development Initiative - efficient land registration and land information system Active - active supply and demand Legislative - Ensured formal land transaction

12 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 12 An Efficient Land Market: Characteristics Equitable: The system governing the land provides reasonable access to all income groups and individuals. Equitable access to land and house Equitable access to transaction(bid, auction) Equitable access to credit Land market transparency Land policies and government intervention Remove distorted price and provide affordable house

13 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 13 Environmentally sound: Protects land source sustainable use for the good of both current and future users Ecological sustainability Environmental remediation Pollution reduction Urban greening An Efficient Land Market: Characteristics

14 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 14 Example: Environmental sustainability, community safety and economic development --Australia 2002 Urban Environment Development of Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China --China 2002 An Efficient Land Market: Characteristics

15 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 15 Compatible: The system governing the land markets is integrated with other laws and regulations governing land. Planningland development strategy Taxation--development control Provision of public infrastructure and services -- safe water provision, sanitation, waste, management and treatment An Efficient Land Market: Characteristics

16 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 16 Example: Provision of infrastructure for a Housing Development in Temba --South Africa 2000 Comprehensive Approach to Urban Development in Tamil Nadu, India --India 2000 Comprehensive Revitalization of Urban Settlements, Chengdu ---China 2000 An Efficient Land Market: Characteristics

17 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 17 Requirements for Efficient Land Market Well defined property rights Voluntary participation Buyers and sellers Free entry and exit Information Similarity of product Example: Trend of Market-Oriented Land Transaction --china 2003 Structural Changes in the Land Market in Japan --Japan 2002

18 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 18 Efficient functioning of land markets requires efficient and updated land registration systems which clearly indicate legal ownership of land. Land Registration is defined as the process of maintaining a register of real rights in land and includes registers of title and registers of deeds. A Land Register is described in some jurisdictions as an Immovable Property Register or as a Cadastre. Requirements for Efficient Land Market

19 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 19 A poor functioning land market leads to ills : Land speculation Creation of slums and squatter settlements Environmental deterioration An inefficient urban development pattern Adverse affections to urban economy Distortion of a Poor Functioning Land Market

20 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 20 Example : Bubbles of Japan Urban Land Markets. – KAZUO SAT0 Land,productive slums and urban poverty -- Solomon Benjamin Distortion of a Poor Functioning Land Market

21 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 21 The process of buying land based solely on its current market price in the hope that future market prices will be higher. It occurs when the demand for land, at the present time or in the near future, outstrips the supply of land. Rampant land speculation cause a bubble land and property market, where prices of land and property are overprice,drive urban poor out of informal land market, pushing them into squatter settlements, illegal subdivisions and slums. Land Speculation

22 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 22 Demand side: Rapid economic growth Lack of opportunities for investigation in other sectors Supply side Bottleneck of availability in serviced land from in the land development phase and land transaction phase. -- Slow provision of infrastructure and services -- Poor city planning -- Poor land records -- Cumbersome procedures for buy and sell land or property Land Speculation

23 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 23 Economic cost - Increasing the cost of land investment; - Creating bubble economy; - Have been blamed for triggering the financial crises in South East Asia Environmental cost - Decreasing of green land - Increasing the amount of water leakage - Increasing the costs of disposing urban waste water and solid wastes. - Causing traffic pollution and air pollution. Land Speculation

24 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 24 Social cost - Driving the urban poor out of the formal urban land market, - Causing squatter settlements, illegal subdivisions and slums - Increasing the cost of living - Causing poor health and entrench the cycle of poverty. Land Speculation

25 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 25 Reading: Land Speculation: What Is It Bad For? --Fred E. Foldvary, 2003 Lessons Learnt from Housing Speculation in Bangkok -- Sopon Pornchokchai 2003 Land Speculation and the Boom/Bust Cycle Land Speculation

26 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 26 The various taxes to reduce land speculation in the case-studies is provided in table. Methods to Reduce Land Speculation

27 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 27 WP2 Methods to Reduce Land Speculation Overview of regulations to reduce land speculation 1 BandungDhakaHuéMakatiPenang Limitation of land ownership N.A.Under consideration N.A. Limitation on foreign ownership Property tax on vacant land YesN.A. Yes Capital gains tax 3 per cent of gross transfer value 0-20 per cent depending on income level and/or duration of ownership 5 per cent of gross transfer value or fair market value (if higher) Yes Excess land holding tax N.A. N.A Betterment tax Legal provision exists Windfall tax Bill under consideration

28 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 28 Land speculation was a main reason for land being vacant. Few regulations which attempted to encourage capital investments on land instead of using land for capital storage and accumulation, Available tools typically suffered from poor performance record. Almost all case-studies levied a capital gains tax and most applied a property tax on vacant land. Not one case-study applied limitations on land ownership or excess land holding tax. Methods to Reduce Land Speculation

29 2.3.1 Urban Land Market 29 The collection rate would not be more than 60 per cent of the actual cost. The Philippines was the only country where a special tax on vacant land existed and attempts were also being made to collect windfalls profits (unearned increments) to the public sector through a specific tax for this purpose. Typically the case-studies appeared to have poor implementation records regarding taxes to reduce land speculation. Methods to Reduce Land Speculation


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