Presentation on theme: "Economic Efficiency, Government Price Setting, and Taxes"— Presentation transcript:
1Economic Efficiency, Government Price Setting, and Taxes
2Should the Government Control Apartment Rents? New York City… About one million of New York City’s two million apartments are subject to rent control. The other one million apartments have their rents determined in the market by the demand and supply for apartments.
3Economic Efficiency, Government Price Setting, and Taxes Price ceiling A legally determined maximum price that sellers may charge.Price floor A legally determined minimum price that sellers may receive.
4Consumer Surplus And Producer Surplus 4 - 1The Demand Curve is Also the Marginal Benefit CurveMarginal benefit The additional benefit to a consumer from consuming one more unit of a good or service.Consumer surplus The difference between the highest price a consumer is willing to pay and the price the consumer actually pays.
5Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus 4 - 2Total Consumer Surplus in the Market for Chai Tea
64 - 1 The Consumer Surplus from Satellite Television How much consumer surplus will the owner of this satellite dish receive?
7Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus 4 - 3Producer SurplusMarginal cost The additional cost to a firm of producing one more unit of a good or service.Producer surplus The difference between the lowest price a firm would have been willing to accept and the price it actually receives.
8Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus What Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus MeasureConsumer surplus measures the benefit to consumers from participating in a market, and producer surplus measures the benefit to producers from participating in a market.
9The Efficiency of Competitive Markets Marginal Benefit Equals Marginal Cost in Competitive Equilibrium4 - 4Marginal Benefit Equals Marginal Cost Only at Competitive Equilibrium
10The Efficiency of Competitive Markets Economic Surplus4 - 5Economic Surplus Equals the Sum of Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus
11The Efficiency of Competitive Markets Deadweight Loss4 - 6When a Market Is Not in Equilibrium There is a Deadweight LossDeadweight loss The reduction in economic surplus resulting from a market not being in competitive equilibrium.
12The Efficiency of Competitive Markets Economic Surplus and Economic EfficiencyEconomic efficiency A market outcome in which the marginal benefit to consumers of the last unit produced is equal to its marginal cost of production, and where the sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus is at a maximum.
13Government Intervention in the Market: Price Floors And Price Ceilings Price Floors: The Example of Agricultural Markets4 - 7The Economic Effect of a Price Floor in the Wheat Market
144 - 2 Price Floors in Labor Markets: The Minimum Wage Many economists believe there are better policies than the minimum wage for raising the incomes of low-skilled workers.
15Government Intervention In The Market: Price Floors And Price Ceilings Price Ceilings: The Example of Rent Controls4 - 8The Economic Effect of a Rent CeilingDon’t Confuse “Scarcity” with a “Shortage.”
16Government Intervention In The Market: Price Floors And Price Ceilings Black MarketsBlack markets Buying and selling at prices that violate government price regulations.
174 - 1What’s the Economic Effect of a “Black Market” for Apartments?
18Caution: Gift giving may lead to deadweight loss. 4 - 3Does Holiday Gift Giving Have a Deadweight Loss?Caution: Gift giving may lead to deadweight loss.
19Government Intervention In The Market: Price Floors And Price Ceilings The Results of Government Intervention: Winners, Losers, and InefficiencyWhen the government imposes price floors or price ceilings, three important results occur:Some people win.Some people lose.There is a loss of economic efficiency.Positive and Normative Analysis of Price Ceilings and Price FloorsWhether rent controls are desirable or undesirable is a normative question. Whether the gains to the winners more than make up for the losses to the losers and for the decline in economic efficiency is a matter of judgment and not strictly an economic question.
20The Economic Impact of Taxes The Effect of Taxes on Economic Efficiency4 - 9The Effect of a Tax on the Market for Cigarettes
21The Economic Impact of Taxes Tax Incidence: Who Actually Pays a Tax?Tax incidence The actual division of the burden of a tax between buyers and sellers in a market.
22The Economic Impact of Taxes Tax Incidence: Who Actually Pays a Tax?DETERMINING TAX INCIDENCE ON A DEMAND AND SUPPLY GRAPH4 - 10The Incidence of a Tax on Gasoline
234 - 2 When Do Consumers Pay All of a Sales Tax Increase? LEARNING OBJECTIVE4When Do Consumers Pay All of a Sales Tax Increase?
24The Economic Impact Of Taxes Tax Incidence: Who Actually Pays a Tax?DOES IT MATTER WHETHER THE TAX IS ON BUYERS OR SELLERS?4 - 11The Incidence of a Tax on Gasoline Paid by Buyers
254 - 4Is the Burden of the Social Security Tax Really Shared Equally between Workers and Firms?How much FICA do you think this employee pays?
26The Romance of Rent Control Figure 1: In (a), the elimination of rent control causes an increase from Q1 to Q2 in the quantity of apartments being rented. In (b) this causes the demand for currently non-rent-controlled apartments to shift to the left from D1 to D2. The equilibrium rent declines from $2,000 to $1,500.
28Appendix 4A: Quantitative Demand and Supply Analysis Demand and Supply Equations4A-1Graphing Supply and Demand EquationsAfter statistically estimating supply and demand equations, we can use the equations to draw supply and demand curves.QD = 3,000,000 – 1,000PQS = – 450, ,300PQD = QS
29Appendix 4A: Quantitative Demand and Supply Analysis Calculating Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus4A-2Calculating the Economic Effect of Rent ControlsCONSUMER SURPLUSPRODUCER SURPLUSDEADWEIGHT LOSSCOMPETITIVE EQUILIBRIUM$1,125$865.50$0RENT CONTROL$1,338.75$278$373.75