When presented with unrealistic models, as long as some red is present, the attack behavior occurs
LE 51-4 BEHAVIOR: A male stickleback fish attacks other male sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory. PROXIMATE CAUSE: The red belly of the intruding male acts as a sign stimulus that releases aggression in a male stickleback. ULTIMATE CAUSE: By chasing away other male sticklebacks, a male decreases the chance that eggs laid in his nesting territory will be fertilized by another male.
LE 51-5 BEHAVIOR: Young geese follow and imprint on their mother. PROXIMATE CAUSE: During an early, critical developmental stage, the young geese observe their mother moving away from them and calling. ULTIMATE CAUSE: On average, geese that follow and imprint on their mother receive more care and learn necessary skills, and thus have a greater chance of surviving than those that do not follow their mother.
Concept 51.2: Many behaviors have a strong genetic component Biologists study how genes and environment influence development of behavioral phenotypes Innate behavior is developmentally fixed and under strong genetic influence
LE 51-9 Minnows are widely dispersed in an aquarium before an alarm substance is introduced. Within seconds of the alarm substance being introduced, minnows aggregate near the bottom of the aquarium and reduce their movement.
LE 51-10 SONOGRAMS Standard repeating unit Chrysoperla plorabunda parent Vibration volleys crossed with Volley period Chrysoperla johnsoni parent Standard repeating unit F 1 hybrids, typical phenotype Standard repeating unit
Cognition and Problem Solving Cognition is the ability of an animals nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptors Problem solving can be learned by observing behavior of other animals Video: Chimp Cracking Nut Video: Chimp Cracking Nut
LE 51-21b Wintering blackcaps captured in Britain and their laboratory-raised offspring had a migratory orientation toward the west, while young birds from Germany were oriented toward the southwest. BRITAIN Mediterranean Sea Young from SW Germany GERMANY N E W S N E W S Adults from Britain and F 1 offspring of British adults
LE 51-22 Average number of drops Total flight height Drop height preferred by crows = 5.23 m Average number of drops 125 100 75 50 25 Height of drop (m) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 15 5 3 2 7 Total flight height (number of drops drop height in m)
LE 51-23 Low prey density High prey density Small prey Medium prey Large prey 33% Small prey Medium prey Large prey Small prey Medium prey Large prey 14% 33% 35% 50% 2% 40% 57% 32.5% 35% Large prey at far distance 100% Small prey at middle distance Small prey at close distance Percentage of prey available Predicted percentage of prey in diet Observed percentage of prey in diet
Imprinting of female chicks on males with more ornamentation affects mate selection as adults Experiments suggest that mate choice by female zebra finches has played a key role in evolution of ornamentation in male zebra finches
LE 51-28 Females reared by ornamented parents or ornamented fathers preferred ornamented males as mates. Females reared by ornamented mothers or nonornamented parents showed no preference for either ornamented or nonornamented males. Males reared by all experimental groups showed no preference for either ornamented or nonornamented female mates. Experimental Groups Results Both parents ornamented Males ornamented Females ornamented Parents not ornamented Control Group
Male Competition for Mates Male competition for mates is a source of intrasexual selection that can reduce variation among males Such competition may involve agonistic behavior, an often ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource
Concept 51.6: The concept of inclusive fitness can account for most altruistic social behavior Many social behaviors are selfish Natural selection favors behavior that maximizes an individuals survival and reproduction
Inclusive Fitness Altruism can be explained by inclusive fitness Inclusive fitness is the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing offspring and helping close relatives produce offspring
LE 51-36 Control Sample Female guppies prefer males with more orange coloration. Male guppies with varying degrees of coloration Experimental Sample Female guppies prefer less orange males that are associated with another female. Female model engaged in courtship with less orange male
Evolution and Human Culture Human culture is related to evolutionary theory in the distinct discipline of sociobiology Human behavior, like that of other species, results from interactions between genes and environment However, our social and cultural institutions may provide the only feature in which there is no continuum between humans and other animals