2Figure 51.1 A courting pair of East Asian red-crowned cranes (Grus japonicus)
3Figure 51.2 A male African cichlid (Neolamprologus tetracephalus) with erect fins Dorsal finAnal fin
4Figure 51.3 Sign stimuli in a classic fixed action pattern (a) A male three-spined stickleback fish shows its red underside.(b) The realistic model at the top, without a red underside, produces no aggressive response in a male three-spined stickleback fish. The other models, with red undersides, produce strong responses.
5Figure 51.4 Proximate and ultimate perspectives on aggressive behavior by male sticklebacks BEHAVIOR: A male stickleback fish attacks other male sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.PROXIMATE CAUSE: The red belly of the intruding male acts as a sign stimulusthat releases aggression in a male stickleback.ULTIMATE CAUSE: By chasing away other male sticklebacks, a male decreases the chance that eggs laid in his nesting territory will be fertilized by another male.
6Figure 51.5 Proximate and ultimate perspectives on imprinting in graylag geese BEHAVIOR: Young geese follow and imprint on their mother.PROXIMATE CAUSE: During an early, critical developmental stage, the young geese observe their mother moving away from them and calling.ULTIMATE CAUSE: On average, geese that follow and imprint on their mother receive more care and learn necessary skills, and thus have a greater chance of surviving than those that do not follow their mother.
8Figure 51.7 A kinesis and a taxis Dry open areaMoist site under leafDirectionof rivercurrent(a) Kinesis increases the chance that a sow bug will encounter and stay in a moist environment.(b) Positive rheotaxis keeps trout facing into the current, the direction from which most food comes.
9Figure 51.8 Bird migration, a behavior that is largely under genetic control
10Figure 51.9 Minnows responding to the presence of an alarm substance (a) Minnows are widely dispersed in an aquarium before an alarm substance is introduced.(b) Within seconds of the alarm substance being introduced, minnows aggregate near the bottom of the aquarium and reduce their movement.
11Proportion of matings by Sonoran females Figure How does dietary environment affect mate choice by female Drosophila mojavensis?The difference in mate selection shown by females that developed on different diets indicates that mate choice by females of Sonoran populations of D. mojavensis is strongly influenced by the dietary environment in which larvae develop.William Etges raised a D. mojavensis population from Baja California and a D. mojavensis population from Sonora on three different culture media: artificial medium, agria cactus (the Baja host plant), and organ pipe cactus (the Sonoran host plant). From each culture medium, Etges collected 15 male and female Baja D. mojavensis pairs and 15 Sonoran pairs and observed the numbers of matings between males and females from the two populations.EXPERIMENTWhen D. mojavensis had been raised on artificial medium, females from the Sonoran population showed a strong preference for Sonoran males (a). When D. mojavensis had been raised on cactus medium, the Sonoran females mated with Baja and Sonoran males in approximately equal frequency (b).RESULTSCONCLUSION100755025Proportion of matings by Sonoran females(a)ArtificialOrgan pipe cactusAgria cactusCulture mediumWith Baja malesWith Sonoran males(b)
12Table 51.1 Influence of Cross-Fostering on Male Mice
13Figure 51.14 Does a digger wasp use landmarks to find her nest? A female digger wasp excavates and cares for four or five separate underground nests, flying to each nest daily with food for the single larva in the nest. To test his hypothesis that the wasp uses visual landmarks to locate the nests, Niko Tinbergen marked one nest with a ring of pinecones.EXPERIMENTWhen the wasp returned, she flew to the center of the pinecone circle instead of to the nearby nest. Repeating the experiment with many wasps, Tinbergen obtained the same results.RESULTSThe experiment supported the hypothesis that digger wasps use landmarks to keep track of their nests.CONCLUSIONNestNo NestAfter the mother visited the nest and flew away, Tinbergen moved the pinecones a few feet to one side of the nest.
15Figure 51.17 Young chimpanzees learning to crack oil palm nuts by observing older chimpanzees
16Average path length (cm) Figure Evolution of foraging behavior by laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster1412108620Average path length (cm)4L1L2L3H1H2H3H4H5D. Melanogaster lineagesLow population densityHigh population density
17Figure 51.21 Evidence of a genetic basis for migratory orientation (a) Blackcaps placed in a funnel cage left marks indicating the direction in which they were trying to migrate.NESWAdults from Britain and F1 offspring of British adultsYoung from SW GermanyMediterranean SeaBRITAINGERMANY(b) Wintering blackcaps captured in Britain and their laboratory-raised offspring had a migratory orientation toward the west, while young birds from Germany were oriented toward the southwest.
18Figure 51.23 Feeding by bluegill sunfish Low prey densityHigh prey density33%32.5%35%2%40%57%100%50%14%Small preyMedium preyLarge preyPercentage availablePredicted percentage in dietObserved percentage in dietLarge prey at far distanceSmall prey at middle distanceSmall prey at close distance
20Figure 51.33 Naked mole rats, a species of colonial mammal that exhibits altruistic behavior
21Figure 51.34 The coefficient of relatedness between siblings Parent AParent BORSibling 1Sibling 21/2 (0.5) probability
22Figure 51.35 Kin selection and altruism in Belding’s ground squirrel MaleFemaleAge (months)Mean distance moved from natal burrow (m)300200100234121314152526
23Figure 51.36 Mate choice copying by female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) with varyingdegrees ofcolorationControl SampleFemale guppies prefermales with more orangecoloration.Experimental SampleFemale modelengaged incourtship withless orangemaleFemale guppies prefer lessorange males that are associatedwith another female.
24Figure 51.37 Vervet monkeys learning correct use of alarm calls
25Figure 51.38 Both genes and culture build human nature