2List three nineteenth-century phenomena that the authors believe contributed to the greater consciousness of modernity, “the state of being modern.”Extensive technological changes.Increased exposure to other cultures.The rapidity of these changes.The effect the “Modernist” consciousness had on artists included changes leading to an acute sense of the world’s lack of fixity or permanence. Modern artists were and are aware of the relationship between their art and art of previous eras. Modernism implies certain concerns about art and aesthetics that are internal to art production, regardless of whether or not the artist is producing scenes from contemporary social life.
5Formal qualities distinguish his work included a palette of dirty browns and grays with sparing use of bright color. He depicted common laborers and workers.Although hailed as the father of Realism, Courbet did not like to be called a Realist. What we can gather from his statements, his goals as a painter were to create a living art based on the customs of people and appearances of real and existing objects of his time. He did not believe in painting abstract concepts such as angels.Gustave CourbetThe Stone Breakers1849 oil on canvas 5 ft. 3 in. x 8 ft. 6 in.
6The work differs from contemporary Romantic work in that the heroic, the sublime, and the dramatic are not found in his work, only the mundane realities of daily life and death. It captures the ordinary rhythms of contemporary life.Two features of Courbet’s Burial at Ornans that horrified contemporary critics:The subject’s ordinariness mixed with the monumental scale of a traditional history painting.The starkly antiheroic composition.Gustave CourbetBurial at Ornans1849 oil on canvas 10 ft. x 22 ft.
8Subject matter in which Millet specialized was the people and occupations of the everyday world, especially peasants.His work viewed by members of the French Middle class with disdain and suspicion. The middle class regarded the peasantry as similar to the dangerous, newly defined working class, which was becoming socialist. His sympathetic depiction seemed to many to be a political manifesto.Jean-François MilletThe Gleaners1857 oil on canvas 2 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 8 in.
9Although Daumier did many fine paintings, he is primarily known for his work in the medium of lithographs.Honoré DaumierRue Transnonian1834 lithograph 12 x 17 1/2 in.
10The type of subject matter with which he was primarily concerned was social criticism and political protest.Honoré DaumierNadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art1862 lithograph 10 3/4 x 8 3/4 in.
11The Third-Class Carriage Honoré DaumierThe Third-Class Carriageca oil on canvas 2 ft. 1 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 11 1/2 in.
12The artist's major concern when he painted the work was that he was using art to call attention to art, synthesizing the history of painting with references to many painting genres and showing form as a function of paint and light rather than as a matter of line. He was moving away from illusion and toward an open acknowledgement of painting’s properties, such as the flatness of the painting surface.Aspects of the picture that shocked the public was the nude figure had a distressingly unidealized figure type and also seems disturbingly unabashed and at ease, looking directly at the viewer without shame or flirtatiousness. Rather than portraying a traditional pastoral scene, it seemed to the public to represent the promiscuous in a Parisian park.Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe, the painting that caused such a scandal at the Salon des Refusés of 1863, was painted by Édouard Manet..Édouard ManetLe Déjuner sur l’Herbe1863 oil on canvas 7 ft. x 8 ft. 10 in.
13Technical features that contributed to Manet’s perceived “audacity” are that his brush strokes are rougher and the shifts in tonality are more abrupt than those found in traditional academic painting.Édouard ManetThe Fifer1866oil on canvas160 x 97 cm
14The public thought that Olympia depicted a shameless, defiant prostitute. The presence of the black maid referred to racial divisions and seemed to evoke depravity, inferiority, and animalistic sexuality.Édouard ManetOlympia1863 oil on canvas 4 ft. 3 in. x 6 ft. 3 in.
15Classical figures painted by Bouguereau differ from those painted by Manet in that Bouguereau depicted classic mythological subjects with a polished illusionism. The nymphs are ideally beautiful and playful. The style is naturalistic but not Realist.Édouard ManetOlympia1863Adolphe-William BouguereauNymphs and Satyr1873
16Similarities: Differences: Olympia reclines across the middle of the canvas from left to right, looking at the viewer, the Venus of Urbino also lays in a similar manor but further down the canvas, allowing for other aspects of the composition, like the two figures in the background to gain enough room for perspective and stability. Other similarities include the fact that both have servants, an animal at the end of the bed, jewellery, possession of flowers (although in different places), the bed and the pose.Differences:Prominently the colour schemes are quite opposite to one and other, both reflective of their time and period but also subject matter. Titian paints in romantic warm flattering pinks and peaches, almost dream like, suiting the idea of virginity and romance. Manet paints in cooler more austere and blunt blues, greens and whites, fitting the subject of her profession and reflecting her cold, matter of fact expression.TitianVenus of Urbino1538Édouard ManetOlympia1863
17The style American Winslow Homer painted was considered to be Realism. The Veteran in a New Field1865 oil on canvas 2 ft. 1/8 in. x 3 ft. 2 1/8 in.
18The American public found Thomas Eakins's Gross Clinic brutally Realistic and hard to look at due to its graphic depiction of surgery.Thomas EakinsThe Gross Clinic1875 oil on canvas 8 ft. x 6 ft. 6 in.
19Eadweard Muybridge was most famous for Photographing the motion of a horse with all four feet off the ground, which started his investigations into his photographic studies of the successive stages of human and animal motion.Eadweard MuybridgeHorse Galloping1878 collotype print
20Walking and Throwing a Handkerchief Eadweard MuybridgeWalking and Throwing a Handkerchiefgelatin-silver print
21Walking and Throwing a Handkerchief Eadweard MuybridgeWalking and Throwing a Handkerchiefgelatin-silver print
23Sarget’s painting technique differed from that of Eakins in that it was a looser, more dashing Realist style than that of Eakins’ carefully rendered details. He was known for a fluent brushing of paint in thin layers and an effortless achievement of quick and lively illusion.John Singer SargentThe Daughters of Edward Darley Boit1882 oil on canvas 7 ft. 3 3/8 in. x 7 ft. 3 5/8 in.
24Three characteristics of his style: The African-American artist Henry Ossawa Tanner studied with Eakins before moving to Paris.Three characteristics of his style:Depicts the dignity of the lives of ordinary people.Careful study from nature.Expressive lighting and loose strokes of color mixed with great detail.Henry Ossawa TannerThe Thankful Poor1894 oil on canvas 2 ft. 11 1/2 in. x 3 ft. 8 1/4 in.
25Three Woman in a Village Church Wilhelm LeiblThree Woman in a Village Churchoil on canvas approximately 2 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 1 in.
26Academic ArtArt sanctioned by the academies, established art schools that provided instruction for art students and sponsored exhibitions. They exerted great control over the art scene.The role the salons played in the artistic life of nineteenth-century France was that they often exhibited works rejected by the academies.
27Bouguereau created the figure of his mythical beast-man by combining Realist depictions of a goat's hind quarters and horns and a horse's ears and tail with the upper body of a man.Adolphe-William BouguereauNymphs and Satyr1873 oil on canvas 8 ft. 6 in. high
28The gladiator looks toward the vestal virgins in the stands as they all feverishly point their thumbs down, pollice verso, indicating the death of the loser. But the final decision is left to the emperor, who sits in his viewing box, slowly eating from his bowl of figs.Jean-Léon GérômePolice Verso1872 oil on canvas x cm
30The earlier style that influenced Rosa Bonheur's Horse Fair was Naturalism: Realism without the social and political subjects.Rosa BonheurThe Horse Fairoil on canvas 8 ft. 1/4 in. x 16 ft. 7 1/2 in.
31Impressionism Four painters considered to be Impressionists. Claude MonetGustave CaillebotteCamille PissarroPierre-Auguste RenoirFour characteristics of Impressionism.Focused on a single moment.Incorporated the qualities of sketches—abbreviation, speed, and spontaneity.Clearly evident brush strokes.Acknowledged the paint and the canvas surface.
32Claude Monet Impression: Sunrise 1872 oil on canvas 1 ft. 7 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 1 1/2 in.
33Cowherd on the Route du Chou, Pontoise Camille PissarroCowherd on the Route du Chou, Pontoise1874oil on canvas21 5/8 x 36 1/4 in.
34Snow Effect at Eragny, Road to Gisors Camille PissarroSnow Effect at Eragny, Road to Gisors1885oil on canvas33 x 41cm
35Gauguin's glowing colours convey the exotic character of the Martinique landscape. His brushstrokes are visible, but fuse into flatter areas of colour.Paul GauguinMartinique Landscape1887oil on canvas
36The amazing “reality” of photographs helped to supplement working directly from a model. Parallels between photography and Impressionism include the cutting off figures at the frame’s edge and the flattening spatial effect of high viewpoints.Hippolyte JouvinThe Point Neuf, Parisca albumen stereograph
37Hippolyte Jouvin The Point Neuf, Paris ca albumen stereograph
38Monet’s Saint-LazareTrain Station reflect the new urban Paris In subject matter;The expanding railway network was bringing more people into Paris and tall buildings were becoming a major part of Paris.In style;The agitated paint application contributes to the sense of energy and conveys the atmosphere of urban life.Claude MonetSaint-Lazare Train Station1877 oil on canvas 2 ft. 5 3/4 in. x 3 ft. 5 in.
39Caillebott’s Paris: A Rainy Day reflects this wide open space Haussmannization refers to Baron Georges Haussmann, who was responsible for overseeing the rebuilding of Paris. By demolishing ancient structures, he created wide-open avenues more accessible to the flow of pedestrian and vehicular traffic.Caillebott’s Paris: A Rainy Day reflects this wide open spaceGustave CaillebotteParis: A Rainy Day1877 oil on canvas approximately 6 ft. 9 in. x 9 ft. 9 in.
40After a chronic eye infection limited the amount of time Camille Pissarro could spend outdoors, he began a series of views of Paris seen from hotel windows. Hoping to show the beauty of the bustling city, he painted this view down the Avenue de L'opera and other vistas at different hours and seasons, and under varying weather conditions.Camille PissarroLa Place du Théâtre Français1898 oil on canvas 2 ft. 4 1/2 in. x 3 ft. 1/2 in.
41The Great Wave off Kanagawa Katsushika HokusaiThe Great Wave off Kanagawa1857 color woodblock print 9 7/8 x 14 3/4 in.
42Ando Hiroshige Plum Garden, Kameido 1857 color woodblock print 36 x 24 cm
43Renoir prefered to paint leisure activities. Pierre-Auguste RenoirLe Moulin de la Galette1876 oil on canvas 4 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 8 in.
45One logical discrepancy used by Manet in A Bar at the Follies-Bergere to call attention to the pictorial structure of the painting itself was the mirror creates confusion of spatial relationships such as the horizontality of the bar and the displaced reflection of the barmaid.Édouard ManetA Bar at the Folies-Bergère1882 oil on canvas 3 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 3 in.
46Japonisme.The beauty and exoticism of the Japanese aesthetic, as understood by Westerners and as seen in Japanese kimonos, fans, lacquer, etc.Edgar DegasBallet Rehearsal1874 oil on canvas 1 ft. 11 in. x 2 ft. 9 in.
47The care with which Degas observed his model is reflected not only in the sculpture itself, but also in the unusual number of surviving sketches of the model in charcoal and pastel, as well as in a preparatory sculptural study of the figure in the nude.Edgar DegasLittle Fourteen-Year-Old Dancerbronze, paint, tulle, satin, wood
48Arbitrarily cut-off figures Patterns of light splotches Ways in which Degas’ work shows the influence of photography and of Japanese prints;Arbitrarily cut-off figuresPatterns of light splotchesSpatial projections as influenced by Japanese wood-block prints.Edgar DegasL’absinthe1876 oil on canvas36 1/4 x 26 3/4 in.
49Stylistic features Berthe Morisot shared with other Impressionists; The mood of relaxed leisure and the stylistic elements of open brushwork and plein air (outdoor) lighting.Berthe MorisotVilla at the Seaside1874 oil on canvas 1 ft. 7 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 1/8 in.
50List two devices he used to capture the vibrating quality of light: Short, choppy brush strokes.The juxtaposition of colors on a canvas fuses from a distance and produces a more intense hue than the same colors mixed on the palette.The Impressionists that most systematically investigated the roles of light and color in representing atmosphere was Monet.Claude MonetRouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun)1894 oil on canvas 3 ft. 3 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 1 7/8 in.
51In 1892–93, Monet painted more than thirty views of Rouen Cathedral In 1892–93, Monet painted more than thirty views of Rouen Cathedral. Moving from one canvas to another as the day progressed, Monet painted the facade with highly textured brushstrokes that both convey the aspect of sculpted stone and make the atmosphere and light palpableClaude MonetRouen Cathedral: The Portaloil on canvas each approximately 3 ft. 3 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 1 7/8 in.
52Edgar DegasThe Tub1886 pastel 1 ft. 11 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 8 3/8 in.
53Little Girl in a Blue Armchair Mary CassattLittle Girl in a Blue Armchair1878 oil on canvas 35 x 51 in.
54Mary Cassatt's favorite subjects were women and children. The Bathca oil on canvas 3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 2 in.
55Three influences seen in Toulouse‑Lautrec's At the Moulin Rouge and the features that reflect each influence.Degas: Oblique and asymmetrical composition.Japanese prints: spatial diagonals.Photography: Figures cut off at the frame’s edge.Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's At the Moulin Rougeoil on canvas, 48-7/16x55-1/2 inchesThe Art Institute of Chicago.
56Whistler called his paintings "arrangements" and ''nocturnes“ because he felt nature contains the elements, in color and form, of all pictures, just as the keyboard contains the notes of all music. It is up to the artist to choose and arrange the elements beautifully.James Abbott McNeil WhistlerNocturne in Black and Gold (The Falling Rocket)ca oil on canvas 1 ft. 11 5/8 in. x 1 ft. 6 1/2 in.
57Giorgionne da Castelfranco Pastoral Symphony Édouard Manet Compare Manet's Le Dejeuner sur l’herbe with Giorgione/Titian's Pastoral Symphony . In what ways are they similar, and in what ways do they differ? Why do you think the Parisian public was shocked by Manet’s work but considered Giorgioni’s work to be a classical masterpiece?Giorgionne da CastelfrancoPastoral Symphonyca. 1508Édouard ManetLe Déjuner sur l’Herbe1863