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List three nineteenth-century phenomena that the authors believe contributed to the greater consciousness of modernity, the state of being modern. Extensive.

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Presentation on theme: "List three nineteenth-century phenomena that the authors believe contributed to the greater consciousness of modernity, the state of being modern. Extensive."— Presentation transcript:


2 List three nineteenth-century phenomena that the authors believe contributed to the greater consciousness of modernity, the state of being modern. Extensive technological changes. Increased exposure to other cultures. The rapidity of these changes. The effect the Modernist consciousness had on artists included changes leading to an acute sense of the worlds lack of fixity or permanence. Modern artists were and are aware of the relationship between their art and art of previous eras. Modernism implies certain concerns about art and aesthetics that are internal to art production, regardless of whether or not the artist is producing scenes from contemporary social life.



5 Gustave Courbet The Stone Breakers 1849 oil on canvas 5 ft. 3 in. x 8 ft. 6 in. Although hailed as the father of Realism, Courbet did not like to be called a Realist. What we can gather from his statements, his goals as a painter were to create a living art based on the customs of people and appearances of real and existing objects of his time. He did not believe in painting abstract concepts such as angels. Formal qualities distinguish his work included a palette of dirty browns and grays with sparing use of bright color. He depicted common laborers and workers.

6 Gustave Courbet Burial at Ornans 1849 oil on canvas 10 ft. x 22 ft. Two features of Courbets Burial at Ornans that horrified contemporary critics: The subjects ordinariness mixed with the monumental scale of a traditional history painting. The starkly antiheroic composition. The work differs from contemporary Romantic work in that the heroic, the sublime, and the dramatic are not found in his work, only the mundane realities of daily life and death. It captures the ordinary rhythms of contemporary life.


8 Jean-François Millet The Gleaners 1857 oil on canvas 2 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 8 in. His work viewed by members of the French Middle class with disdain and suspicion. The middle class regarded the peasantry as similar to the dangerous, newly defined working class, which was becoming socialist. His sympathetic depiction seemed to many to be a political manifesto. Subject matter in which Millet specialized was the people and occupations of the everyday world, especially peasants.

9 Honoré Daumier Rue Transnonian 1834 lithograph 12 x 17 1/2 in. Although Daumier did many fine paintings, he is primarily known for his work in the medium of lithographs.

10 Honoré Daumier Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art 1862 lithograph 10 3/4 x 8 3/4 in. The type of subject matter with which he was primarily concerned was social criticism and political protest.

11 Honoré Daumier The Third-Class Carriage ca oil on canvas 2 ft. 1 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 11 1/2 in.

12 Édouard Manet Le Déjuner sur lHerbe 1863 oil on canvas 7 ft. x 8 ft. 10 in. Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe, the painting that caused such a scandal at the Salon des Refusés of 1863, was painted by Édouard Manet.. Aspects of the picture that shocked the public was the nude figure had a distressingly unidealized figure type and also seems disturbingly unabashed and at ease, looking directly at the viewer without shame or flirtatiousness. Rather than portraying a traditional pastoral scene, it seemed to the public to represent the promiscuous in a Parisian park. The artist's major concern when he painted the work was that he was using art to call attention to art, synthesizing the history of painting with references to many painting genres and showing form as a function of paint and light rather than as a matter of line. He was moving away from illusion and toward an open acknowledgement of paintings properties, such as the flatness of the painting surface.

13 Édouard Manet The Fifer 1866 oil on canvas 160 x 97 cm Technical features that contributed to Manets perceived audacity are that his brush strokes are rougher and the shifts in tonality are more abrupt than those found in traditional academic painting.

14 Édouard Manet Olympia 1863 oil on canvas 4 ft. 3 in. x 6 ft. 3 in. The public thought that Olympia depicted a shameless, defiant prostitute. The presence of the black maid referred to racial divisions and seemed to evoke depravity, inferiority, and animalistic sexuality.

15 Classical figures painted by Bouguereau differ from those painted by Manet in that Bouguereau depicted classic mythological subjects with a polished illusionism. The nymphs are ideally beautiful and playful. The style is naturalistic but not Realist. Adolphe-William Bouguereau Nymphs and Satyr 1873 Édouard Manet Olympia 1863

16 Édouard Manet Olympia 1863 Titian Venus of Urbino 1538 Similarities: Olympia reclines across the middle of the canvas from left to right, looking at the viewer, the Venus of Urbino also lays in a similar manor but further down the canvas, allowing for other aspects of the composition, like the two figures in the background to gain enough room for perspective and stability. Other similarities include the fact that both have servants, an animal at the end of the bed, jewellery, possession of flowers (although in different places), the bed and the pose. Differences: Prominently the colour schemes are quite opposite to one and other, both reflective of their time and period but also subject matter. Titian paints in romantic warm flattering pinks and peaches, almost dream like, suiting the idea of virginity and romance. Manet paints in cooler more austere and blunt blues, greens and whites, fitting the subject of her profession and reflecting her cold, matter of fact expression.

17 Winslow Homer The Veteran in a New Field 1865 oil on canvas 2 ft. 1/8 in. x 3 ft. 2 1/8 in. The style American Winslow Homer painted was considered to be Realism.

18 Thomas Eakins The Gross Clinic 1875 oil on canvas 8 ft. x 6 ft. 6 in. The American public found Thomas Eakins's Gross Clinic brutally Realistic and hard to look at due to its graphic depiction of surgery.

19 Eadweard Muybridge Horse Galloping 1878 collotype print Eadweard Muybridge was most famous for Photographing the motion of a horse with all four feet off the ground, which started his investigations into his photographic studies of the successive stages of human and animal motion.

20 Eadweard Muybridge Walking and Throwing a Handkerchief gelatin-silver print

21 Eadweard Muybridge Walking and Throwing a Handkerchief gelatin-silver print

22 Etienne Jules Marey Chronophotograph 1883 gelatin-silver print

23 John Singer Sargent The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit 1882 oil on canvas 7 ft. 3 3/8 in. x 7 ft. 3 5/8 in. Sargets painting technique differed from that of Eakins in that it was a looser, more dashing Realist style than that of Eakins carefully rendered details. He was known for a fluent brushing of paint in thin layers and an effortless achievement of quick and lively illusion.

24 Henry Ossawa Tanner The Thankful Poor 1894 oil on canvas 2 ft. 11 1/2 in. x 3 ft. 8 1/4 in. The African-American artist Henry Ossawa Tanner studied with Eakins before moving to Paris. Three characteristics of his style: Depicts the dignity of the lives of ordinary people. Careful study from nature. Expressive lighting and loose strokes of color mixed with great detail.

25 Wilhelm Leibl Three Woman in a Village Church oil on canvas approximately 2 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 1 in.

26 Art sanctioned by the academies, established art schools that provided instruction for art students and sponsored exhibitions. They exerted great control over the art scene. The role the salons played in the artistic life of nineteenth- century France was that they often exhibited works rejected by the academies.

27 Adolphe-William Bouguereau Nymphs and Satyr 1873 oil on canvas 8 ft. 6 in. high Bouguereau created the figure of his mythical beast-man by combining Realist depictions of a goat's hind quarters and horns and a horse's ears and tail with the upper body of a man.

28 Jean-Léon Gérôme Police Verso 1872 oil on canvas x cm The gladiator looks toward the vestal virgins in the stands as they all feverishly point their thumbs down, pollice verso, indicating the death of the loser. But the final decision is left to the emperor, who sits in his viewing box, slowly eating from his bowl of figs.


30 Rosa Bonheur The Horse Fair oil on canvas 8 ft. 1/4 in. x 16 ft. 7 1/2 in. The earlier style that influenced Rosa Bonheur's Horse Fair was Naturalism: Realism without the social and political subjects.

31 Four characteristics of Impressionism. Focused on a single moment. Incorporated the qualities of sketchesabbreviation, speed, and spontaneity. Clearly evident brush strokes. Acknowledged the paint and the canvas surface. Four painters considered to be Impressionists. Claude Monet Gustave Caillebotte Camille Pissarro Pierre-Auguste Renoir

32 Claude Monet Impression: Sunrise 1872 oil on canvas 1 ft. 7 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 1 1/2 in.

33 Camille Pissarro Cowherd on the Route du Chou, Pontoise 1874 oil on canvas 21 5/8 x 36 1/4 in.

34 Camille Pissarro Snow Effect at Eragny, Road to Gisors 1885 oil on canvas 33 x 41cm

35 Paul Gauguin Martinique Landscape 1887 oil on canvas Gauguin's glowing colours convey the exotic character of the Martinique landscape. His brushstrokes are visible, but fuse into flatter areas of colour.

36 Hippolyte Jouvin The Point Neuf, Paris ca albumen stereograph The amazing reality of photographs helped to supplement working directly from a model. Parallels between photography and Impressionism include the cutting off figures at the frames edge and the flattening spatial effect of high viewpoints.

37 Hippolyte Jouvin The Point Neuf, Paris ca albumen stereograph

38 Claude Monet Saint-Lazare Train Station 1877 oil on canvas 2 ft. 5 3/4 in. x 3 ft. 5 in. Monets Saint-LazareTrain Station reflect the new urban Paris In subject matter; The expanding railway network was bringing more people into Paris and tall buildings were becoming a major part of Paris. In style; The agitated paint application contributes to the sense of energy and conveys the atmosphere of urban life.

39 Gustave Caillebotte Paris: A Rainy Day 1877 oil on canvas approximately 6 ft. 9 in. x 9 ft. 9 in. Haussmannization refers to Baron Georges Haussmann, who was responsible for overseeing the rebuilding of Paris. By demolishing ancient structures, he created wide-open avenues more accessible to the flow of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Caillebotts Paris: A Rainy Day reflects this wide open space

40 Camille Pissarro La Place du Théâtre Français 1898 oil on canvas 2 ft. 4 1/2 in. x 3 ft. 1/2 in. After a chronic eye infection limited the amount of time Camille Pissarro could spend outdoors, he began a series of views of Paris seen from hotel windows. Hoping to show the beauty of the bustling city, he painted this view down the Avenue de L'opera and other vistas at different hours and seasons, and under varying weather conditions.

41 Katsushika Hokusai The Great Wave off Kanagawa 1857 color woodblock print 9 7/8 x 14 3/4 in.

42 Ando Hiroshige Plum Garden, Kameido 1857 color woodblock print 36 x 24 cm

43 Pierre-Auguste Renoir Le Moulin de la Galette 1876 oil on canvas 4 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 8 in. Renoir prefered to paint leisure activities.


45 Édouard Manet A Bar at the Folies-Bergère 1882 oil on canvas 3 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. One logical discrepancy used by Manet in A Bar at the Follies-Bergere to call attention to the pictorial structure of the painting itself was the mirror creates confusion of spatial relationships such as the horizontality of the bar and the displaced reflection of the barmaid.

46 Edgar Degas Ballet Rehearsal 1874 oil on canvas 1 ft. 11 in. x 2 ft. 9 in. Japonisme. The beauty and exoticism of the Japanese aesthetic, as understood by Westerners and as seen in Japanese kimonos, fans, lacquer, etc.

47 Edgar Degas Little Fourteen-Year-Old Dancer bronze, paint, tulle, satin, wood The care with which Degas observed his model is reflected not only in the sculpture itself, but also in the unusual number of surviving sketches of the model in charcoal and pastel, as well as in a preparatory sculptural study of the figure in the nude.

48 Edgar Degas Labsinthe 1876 oil on canvas 36 1/4 x 26 3/4 in. Ways in which Degas work shows the influence of photography and of Japanese prints; Arbitrarily cut-off figures Patterns of light splotches Spatial projections as influenced by Japanese wood-block prints.

49 Berthe Morisot Villa at the Seaside 1874 oil on canvas 1 ft. 7 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 1/8 in. Stylistic features Berthe Morisot shared with other Impressionists; The mood of relaxed leisure and the stylistic elements of open brushwork and plein air (outdoor) lighting.

50 Claude Monet Rouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun) 1894 oil on canvas 3 ft. 3 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 1 7/8 in. The Impressionists that most systematically investigated the roles of light and color in representing atmosphere was Monet. List two devices he used to capture the vibrating quality of light: Short, choppy brush strokes. The juxtaposition of colors on a canvas fuses from a distance and produces a more intense hue than the same colors mixed on the palette.

51 Claude Monet Rouen Cathedral: The Portal oil on canvas each approximately 3 ft. 3 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 1 7/8 in. In 1892–93, Monet painted more than thirty views of Rouen Cathedral. Moving from one canvas to another as the day progressed, Monet painted the facade with highly textured brushstrokes that both convey the aspect of sculpted stone and make the atmosphere and light palpable

52 Edgar Degas The Tub 1886 pastel 1 ft. 11 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 8 3/8 in.

53 Mary Cassatt Little Girl in a Blue Armchair 1878 oil on canvas 35 x 51 in.

54 Mary Cassatt The Bath ca oil on canvas 3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. Mary Cassatt's favorite subjects were women and children.

55 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's At the Moulin Rouge oil on canvas, 48-7/16x55-1/2 inches The Art Institute of Chicago. Three influences seen in Toulouse Lautrec's At the Moulin Rouge and the features that reflect each influence. Degas: Oblique and asymmetrical composition. Japanese prints: spatial diagonals. Photography: Figures cut off at the frames edge.

56 James Abbott McNeil Whistler Nocturne in Black and Gold (The Falling Rocket) ca oil on canvas 1 ft. 11 5/8 in. x 1 ft. 6 1/2 in. Whistler called his paintings "arrangements" and ''nocturnes because he felt nature contains the elements, in color and form, of all pictures, just as the keyboard contains the notes of all music. It is up to the artist to choose and arrange the elements beautifully.

57 Compare Manet's Le Dejeuner sur lherbe with Giorgione/Titian's Pastoral Symphony. In what ways are they similar, and in what ways do they differ? Why do you think the Parisian public was shocked by Manets work but considered Giorgionis work to be a classical masterpiece? Édouard Manet Le Déjuner sur lHerbe 1863 Giorgionne da Castelfranco Pastoral Symphony ca. 1508



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