2Oskar Schindler He was a German from Czechoslovakia Born in 1908 Raised a strict catholicThere were Jews in his class at schoolHe lived next door to a rabbi growing upBefore the war, he was a small time salesman and not very successful
3What kind of man was Schindler People called him:A swindler“Der grosse Lebemann” (Emilie Schindler, his wife), “a man who loves to live life to its fullest.”Charming, vain, handsome, womanizer, alcoholic, flamboyant, gambler, risk takerLoved living life on the edge, and to be the center of attentionLiked to play the playboy spy.
4How did the Germans see him For the Nazi party, he was a party member since 1939.He was a loyal agent for military intelligence.He was used as a spy. He provided for the war effort.He provided Polish army uniforms to German provocateurs who attacked a German border radio station the night before the invasion of Poland. The station was said to have been overrun by “Polish” soldiers. Actually, it was Germans dressed as Poles. This provided an excuse to invade.
5Schindler during the war Was arrested repeatedly (3 times by the SS).Usually arrested for black market fraud.His connections always got him out.He ended up being the only German to save more than 1,000 Jews from the death camps.
6Quote from Interview with Spielberg The Quote is about adapting the film from the novel.“The difficulty was what we could not use because we just did not have time to use it I had to Find a way of taking the novel, and not so much distill it, but just find all the moments that moved me the most and were the most informative.”
7Quote from Interview with Spielberg (Continued) “In the process of Schindler’s almost transparent transformation from a businessman to a savior, the novel did not give me those clues. It did not tell me why Schindler did it. And none of the witnesses could tell me why Schindler did it, even though I asked everybody I met.”
8Schindler’s motivation Point of some debate among the Schindler Jews.Some said he was an opportunist who saved the Jews because it was self-serving, or because he loved to outwit the SS.Others believed his motivation to be purely to save lives.But for most of the Schindler Jews, they simply know that he saved them and that is all that matters.
9The Change of HeartOne survivor claims he witnessed Schindler’s change of heart.After seeing Goeth shoot two girls shortly before they died from hanging, Schindler got ill in front of everyone, turned to the survivor and stated that he would never work for the Germans again.
10He did show “his Jews” kindness He permitted them to observe holidays.He went to great lengths to make them feel safe.He slept in the factory himself, although a villa was available in Brinnlitz.He provided extra food and medicine.Some of this is portrayed in the film.
11History vs. the FilmAt the end of the war, Schindler had to flee because the Russians would have shot him without a trial.Some of his Jewish workers smuggled him out as a camp survivor.Unlike the film portrayal, however, he escaped in a Mercedes full of valuables.These were later looted and stripped from him and he arrived with nothing in the American zone.
12While with the Americans He gave American investigators evidence against his former Nazi drinking buddies.American Jews helped get him to Switzerland.
13After the war He lived in different parts of West Germany. He lived for a time with Jews in Argentina.His grand schemes never worked out.He was at his best during war time.He lived in Israel for a time and was celebrated, and bestowed the title of righteous gentile. A tree was planted for him in the avenue of the righteous.When he returned to Germany, he lived in poverty and obscurity.
14Schindler’s death He died at age 66 of a failed heart and liver. He was buried in Israel in 1974.His grave is shown in the film at the end.
15Krakow The story takes place in Krakow. 26% of the population was Jewish.Shows the Krakow-Plaszow labor camp.In Krakow during the Holocaust, the Jews invited a wall around their ghetto to protect them from Polish citizens.Krakow was a bastion of Jewish culture, but also of anti-Semitism.The Jews thought of the walls as a fortress against anti-Semitism.
16KrakowWhen the Nazis came, the Jews almost willingly moved to the ghetto.They expected to need their fortress, they knew that there was a great deal of hatred toward them in the Polish population.
17The Accuracy of the Film Everywhere the “Schindler Jews” got preferential treatment. Accurate.Shows Brinnlitz, CzechoslovakiaNear Schindler’s home town.The film shows this accurately, shows the stops on the way there, except that the men also stopped in Groess-Rosen for a week.The women were in Auschwitz for 3 weeks. Schindler had to bribe their way out.
18The List The list had 297 women and 800 men on it. The first list made was not very accurate and hastily made.Schindler added 80 names from a “frozen transport,” a transport from an Auschwitz subcamp. They were left in the cold for 10 days with no food or water.So he saved more people than just his workers.
19The ListThe list was actually made by Marcel Goldberg, the greedy Jewish policeman in the film.This was the source of much bitterness.Only those who bribed him got on the list.Schindler said, he did not have the time to constantly check up on him.Some survivors threatened Schindler because of this.
20The Film It took more than a decade to prepare to make the film. The shooting of the film was done in actual locations.The interior and exterior of Schindler’s apartment.The interior and exterior of the prison.Almost every place was authentic.The Plaszow camp was recreated.The shot in Auschwitz had to be shot outside the gate because of resistance to having a film shot inside.
21Steven Spielberg The world’s most commercially successful film maker. Perhaps best known for Jurasic Park and Indiana Jones.For him, the film was a personal reawakening of his Jewish faith.He found a great deal of anti-Semitism exists in Poland still today. There were several incidents.
22Poland Very few Jews live in Poland today. Because of the anti-Semitism that still exists there, Jews do not want to return.Unfortunately, Hitler was especially successful in murdering most of the eastern European Jews.
23Discussion QuestionsHow does this film compare to other films we have seen so far?How does it use imagery and color?What techniques does the film maker use?Is the film successful in representing the Holocaust? Why or why not?How is Schindler established as a character?
24Discussion QuestionsHow is the changing relationship with Stern depicted?What does the scene in which Schindler moves into his apartment represent?How does the film show the bureaucracy, the obsession with order, that characterized the Holocaust?
25Discussion QuestionsWhat is the function of the scene in which Schindler chooses a secretary?What is the function of the scene in which he is speaking to his wife about being remembered as the man who came with nothing and left with two steamer trucks filled with all the riches of the world?
26Discussion QuestionsWhat is the function of the scene in which he is confronted with the gratitude of the one armed man?What does the scene in which Stern is almost taken to a camp show?What is the relationship between Helen Hirsch and Goeth like? How does he feel about her? What does this show?
27Discussion QuestionsWhat does Goeth say about history? Today is history? What does he mean by that and why is it in the film?What is the relationship between Goeth and Schindler? Are they alike? What do they think of each other?Does the film portray a turning point for Schindler? Or is there more than one? Does one stand out? Why does it stand out? What techniques does the film maker employ to make it stand out?
28Discussion QuestionsWhat is the significance of the scene in which the rabbi making hinges is almost shot?At one point Schindler begins to get rather brazen with his requests to help the Jews. Especially during the train episode in which he helps them get water. What does this scene show about his position among the Nazis?What do you think of the scene in Schindler’s List in which he is given the ring?
29Discussion QuestionsWhy does he put on a camp uniform when he leaves the camp?Who are the people putting stones on Schindler’s grave in Israel?