2Core Case Study: Love Canal — There Is No “Away” Between , Hooker Chemical sealed multiple chemical wastes into steel drums and dumped them into an old canal excavation (Love Canal).In 1953, the canal was filled and sold to Niagara Falls school board for $1.The company inserted a disclaimer denying liability for the wastes.
3Core Case Study: Love Canal — There Is No “Away” In 1957, Hooker Chemical warned the school not to disturb the site because of the toxic waste.In 1959 an elementary school, playing fields and homes were built disrupting the clay cap covering the wastes.In 1976, residents complained of chemical smells and chemical burns from the site.
4Core Case Study: Love Canal — There Is No “Away” President Jimmy Carter declared Love Canal a federal disaster area.The area was abandoned in 1980 (left).
5Core Case Study: Love Canal — There Is No “Away” It still is a controversy as to how much the chemicals at Love Canal injured or caused disease to the residents.Love Canal sparked creation of the Superfund law, which forced polluters to pay for cleaning up abandoned toxic waste dumps.
6Types of Solid WasteMunicipalHazardousIndustrialE-waste
7WASTING RESOURCESSolid waste: any unwanted or discarded material we produce that is not a liquid or gas.Municipal solid waste (MSW): produce directly from homes.Industrial solid waste: produced indirectly by industries that supply people with goods and services.Hazardous (toxic) waste: threatens human health or the environment because it is toxic, chemically active, corrosive or flammable.
8LUST – Not what you think! Leaking Underground Storage TanksHundreds of thousands of underground storage tanks have been installed in industrial nationsThey are used to store many potentially toxic substancesOver time, steel tanks corrode and begin to leak, contaminating groundwater used for cooking, drinking, and bathing
9WASTING RESOURCESSolid wastes polluting a river in Jakarta, Indonesia. The man in the boat is looking for items to salvage or sell.
10WASTING RESOURCESThe United States produces about a third of the world’s solid waste and buries more than half of it in landfills.About 98.5% is industrial solid waste.The remaining 1.5% is MSW.About 55% of U.S. MSW is dumped into landfills, 30% is recycled or composted, and 15% is burned in incinerators.
11Actions to reduce our output of solid waste fall into three broad categories Output approach – deals with ways trash flows out of cities and towns [incineration or landfills]Input approach (more sustainable) – activities to reduce the amount of materials entering the production-consumption cycle [increase product durability]Throughput approach – ways to direct materials back into the production-consumption system [reuse and recycling fall into this category]
12Solid waste management falls into one of three categories Those that deal with waste after it has been producedThose that divert waste back into the production-consumption cycleThose that prevent waste generation in the first place
13Electronic Waste: A Growing Problem E-waste consists of toxic and hazardous waste such as PVC, lead, mercury, and cadmium.The U.S. produces almost half of the world's e-waste but only recycles about 10% of it.
14Integrated Waste Management (variety of strategies for both waste reduction and waste management) ReuseSource reductionRecyclingCompostingLandfillIncineration
15Reducing Solid Waste Consume less Redesign manufacturing processes and products to use less material and energyRedesign manufacturing processes and products to produce less waste and pollutionDevelop products that are easy to repair, reuse, remanufacture, compost, or recycle
16Reducing Solid Waste Continued Shift from selling goods to selling or leasing the services they provideEliminate or reduce unnecessary packagingFee-per-bag waste collection systemCradle-to-grave responsibility laws
17REUSEReusing products is an important way to reduce resource use, waste, and pollution in developed countries.Reusing can be hazardous in developing countries for poor who scavenge in open dumps.They can be exposed to toxins or infectious diseases.
18How People Reuse Materials Children looking for materials to sell in an open dump near Manila in the Philippines.
19Case Study: Using Refillable Containers Refilling and reusing containers uses fewer resources and less energy, produces less waste, saves money, and creates jobs.In Denmark and Canada’s Prince Edward’s Island there is a ban on all beverage containers that cannot be reused.In Finland 95% of soft drink and alcoholic beverages are refillable (Germany 75%).
20RECYCLINGPrimary (closed loop) recycling: materials are turned into new products of the same type.Secondary recycling: materials are converted into different products.Used tires shredded and converted into rubberized road surface.Newspapers transformed into cellulose insulation.
21RECYCLINGThere is a disagreement over whether to mix urban wastes and send them to centralized resource recovery plants or to sort recyclables for collection and sale to manufacturers as raw materials.To promote separation of wastes, 4,000 communities in the U.S. have implemented pay-as-you-throw or fee-per-bag waste collection systems.
23RECYCLINGComposting biodegradable organic waste mimics nature by recycling plant nutrients to the soil.Recycling paper has a number of environmental (reduction in pollution and deforestation, less energy expenditure) and economic benefits and is easy to do.
24RECYCLINGRecycling many plastics is chemically and economically difficult.Many plastics are hard to isolate from other wastes.Recovering individual plastic resins does not yield much material.The cost of virgin plastic resins in low than recycled resins due to low fossil fuel costs.There are new technologies that are making plastics biodegradable.
25Recycling aluminum 95% more efficient than making aluminum Make 20 aluminum cans from recycled scrap with the same amount of energy it takes to make one can from raw ore
26RECYCLINGReuse and recycling are hindered by prices of goods that do not reflect their harmful environmental impacts, too few government subsidies and tax breaks, and price fluctuations.
27BURNING AND BURYING SOLID WASTE Globally, MSW is burned in over 1,000 large waste-to-energy incinerators, which boil water to make steam for heating water, or space, or for production of electricity.Japan and a few European countries incinerate most of their MSW.
28Burning Solid WasteWaste-to-energy incinerator with pollution controls that burns mixed solid waste.
29Wet scrubber Waste pit Bottom ash ElectricitySmokestackTurbineSteamCraneGeneratorWetscrubberFurnaceBoilerElectrostaticprecipitatorWastepitFigure 22.10Solutions: this waste-to-energy incinerator with pollution controls that burns mixed solid waste and recovers some of the energy to produce steam used for heating or producing electricity.WateraddedBottomashDirtywaterConveyorFly ashConventionallandfillWastetreatmentHazardouswaste landfill
30Burying Solid WasteMost of the world’s MSW is buried in landfills that eventually are expected to leak toxic liquids into the soil and underlying aquifers.Open dumps: are fields or holes in the ground where garbage is deposited and sometimes covered with soil. Mostly used in developing countries.Sanitary landfills: solid wastes are spread out in thin layers, compacted and covered daily with a fresh layer of clay or plastic foam.
31How Pollutants Can Enter the Environment From Sanitary Landfills Atmosphere – methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and natural gasRetention in soil – heavy metals – lead, chromium, and ironGroundwater – soluble materials (chloride, nitrates, and sulfates) pass through wasteSurface runoff – pick up leachate and transport it
32How Pollutants Can Enter the Environment From Sanitary Landfills Removal in plants – some plants growing in the dispersal area can selectively take up heavy metals and other toxins and pass it through the food chainPlant residue – plants left in the field contain toxic substancesStream flow – groundwater or surface runoffWind – toxic materials transported to other areas
33Modern Sanitary Landfills Contain Multiple Barriers Clay and plastic liners to limit movement of leachateSurface and subsurface drainage to collect leachateSystems to collect methane gasGroundwater monitoring
34Pipes collect explosive methane as used as fuel When landfill is full,layers of soil and clayseal in trashTopsoilElectricitygeneratorbuildingSandClayMethane storageand compressorbuildingLeachatetreatment systemGarbageProbes todetectmethaneleaksPipes collect explosive methane as used as fuelto generate electricityMethane gasrecovery wellLeachatestoragetankCompactedsolid wasteFigure 22.12Solutions: state-of-the-art sanitary landfill, which is designed to eliminate or minimize environmental problems that plague older landfills. Even these landfills are expected to leak eventually, passing both the effects of contamination and cleanup costs on to future generations. Since 1997, only modern sanitary landfills are allowed in the United States. As a result, many older and small landfills have been closed and replaced with larger local and regional modern landfills.GarbageGroundwatermonitoringwellLeachatepipesLeachate pumpedup to storage tankfor safe disposalSandSyntheticlinerLeachatemonitoringwellSandClay and plastic liningto prevent leaks; pipescollect leachate frombottom of landfillGroundwaterClaySubsoil
35Case Study: What Should We Do with Used Tires? We face a dilemma in deciding what to so with hundreds of millions of discarded tires.
36HAZARDOUS WASTEHazardous waste: is any discarded solid or liquid material that is toxic, ignitable, corrosive, or reactive enough to explode or release toxic fumes.The two largest classes of hazardous wastes are organic compounds (e.g. pesticides, PCBs, dioxins) and toxic heavy metals (e.g. lead, mercury, arsenic).
37What Harmful Chemicals Are in Your Home? CleaningGardening• Disinfectants• Pesticides• Drain, toilet, andwindow cleaners• Weed killers• Ant and rodent killers• Spot removers• Septic tank cleaners• Flea powdersPaint• Latex and oil-based paints• Paint thinners, solvents,and strippersAutomotive• Stains, varnishes,and lacquersFigure 22.15Science: harmful chemicals found in many U.S. homes. The U.S. Congress has exempted disposal of these materials from government regulation. QUESTION: Which of these chemicals are in your home?• Gasoline• Wood preservatives• Used motor oil• Antifreeze• Artist paints and inks• Battery acidGeneral• Solvents• Dry-cell batteries(mercury and cadmium)• Brake andtransmission fluid• Glues and cements• Rust inhibitor andrust remover
38Hazardous Waste Regulations in the United States Two major federal laws regulate the management and disposal of hazardous waste in the U.S.:Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)Cradle-to-the-grave system to keep track waste.Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)Commonly known as Superfund program.
39Hazardous Waste Regulations in the United States The Superfund law was designed to have polluters pay for cleaning up abandoned hazardous waste sites.Only 70% of the cleanup costs have come from the polluters, the rest comes from a trust fund financed until 1995 by taxes on chemical raw materials and oil.
40Conversion to Less Hazardous Substances Physical Methods: using charcoal or resins to separate out harmful chemicals.Chemical Methods: using chemical reactions that can convert hazardous chemicals to less harmful or harmless chemicals.
41Conversion to Less Hazardous Substances Biological Methods:Bioremediation: bacteria or enzymes help destroy toxic and hazardous waste or convert them to more benign substances.Phytoremediation: involves using natural or genetically engineered plants to absorb, filter and remove contaminants from polluted soil and water.
42Radioactive contaminants Organic contaminants Inorganic metal contaminantsPoplar treeBrake fernSunflowerWillow treeIndian mustardLandfillPollutedgroundwater inOilspillFigure 22.17Solutions: phytoremediation. Various types of plants can be used as pollution sponges to clean up soil and water and radioactive substances (left), organic compounds (center), and toxic metals (right). (Data from American Society of Plant Physiologists, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Edenspace)PollutedleachateDecontaminatedwater outSoilSoilGroundwaterGroundwaterRhizofiltrationRoots of plants such assunflowers with danglingroots on ponds or in green-houses can absorb pollutantssuch as radioactive strontium-90 and cesium-137 and variousorganic chemicals.PhytostabilizationPlants such as willow trees and poplars can absorb chemicals and keep them from reaching groundwater or nearby surface water.PhytodegradationPlants such as poplarscan absorb toxic organicchemicals and break them down into less harmful compounds which they store orrelease slowly into the air.PhytoextractionRoots of plants such as Indianmustard and brake ferns canabsorb toxic metals such aslead, arsenic, and others andstore them in their leaves.Plants can then be recycledor harvested and incinerated.
43Can reduce material dumped into landfills Trade-OffsPhytoremediationAdvantagesDisadvantagesEasy to establishSlow (cantake severalgrowingseasons)InexpensiveEffective onlyat depth plantroots canreachCan reduce material dumped into landfillsSome toxic organic chemicals may evaporate from plant leavesFigure 22.18Trade-offs: advantages and disadvantages of using phytoremediation to remove or detoxify hazardous waste. QUESTION: Which single advantage and which single disadvantage do you think are the most important?Produces little air pollution compared to incinerationSome plantscan becometoxic toanimalsLow energy use
45Conversion to Less Hazardous Substances Incineration: heating many types of hazardous waste to high temperatures – up to 2000 °C – in an incinerator can break them down and convert them to less harmful or harmless chemicalsPlasma torch: incinerate at high temperatures by passing electrical current through a gas to generate an electric arc
46Long-Term Storage of Hazardous Waste Hazardous waste can be disposed of on or underneath the earth’s surface, but without proper design and care this can pollute the air and water.Deep-well disposal: liquid hazardous wastes are pumped under pressure into dry porous rock far beneath aquifers.Surface impoundments: excavated depressions such as ponds, pits, or lagoons into which liners are placed and liquid hazardous wastes are stored.
47Deep Underground Wells Trade-OffsDeep Underground WellsAdvantagesDisadvantagesSafe method ifsites are chosencarefullyLeaks or spills atsurfaceLeaks fromcorrosion of wellcasingWastes can beretrieved ifproblemsdevelopExisting fracturesor earthquakescan allow wastesto escape intogroundwaterFigure 22.20Trade-offs: advantages and disadvantages of injecting liquid hazardous wastes into deep underground wells. QUESTION: Which single advantage and which single disadvantage do you think are the most important?Easy to doEncourageswaste productionLow cost
48Long-Term Storage of Hazardous Waste Long-Term Retrievable Storage: Some highly toxic materials cannot be detoxified or destroyed. Metal drums are used to stored them in areas that can be inspected and retrieved.Secure Landfills: Sometimes hazardous waste are put into drums and buried in carefully designed and monitored sites.
49Secure Hazardous Waste Landfill In the U.S. there are only 23 commercial hazardous waste landfills.
50Bulk waste Gas vent Topsoil Plastic cover Earth Impervious clay cap SandClaycapImperviousclayWatertableFigure 22.22Solutions: secure hazardous waste landfill.EarthLeakdetectionsystemGroundwaterPlasticdoublelinerDouble leachatecollection systemReactivewastesin drumsGroundwatermonitoringwell
51Case Study: LeadLead is especially harmful to children and is still used in leaded gasoline and household paints in about 100 countries.
52Solutions Lead Poisoning Prevention Control Phase out leaded gasoline worldwideSharply reduce lead emissions from old and new incineratorsPhase out waste incinerationReplace lead pipes and plumbing fixtures containing lead solderTest blood for lead by age 1Remove leaded paint and lead dust from older houses and apartmentsBan use of lead solderRemove lead from TV sets and computer monitors before incineration or land disposalBan use of lead in computer and TV monitorsFigure 22.24Solutions: ways to help protect children from lead poisoning. QUESTION: Which two of these solutions do you think are the most important?Test for lead in existing ceramicware used to serve foodBan lead glazing for ceramicware used to serve foodTest existing candles for leadBan candles with lead coresWash fresh fruits and vegetables
53AIRWINDSPRECIPITATIONWINDSPRECIPITATIONHg and SO2Hg2+ and acidsHg2+ and acidsPhoto-chemicalHuman sourcesElementalmercuryvapor(Hg)Inorganic mercuryand acids(Hg2+)Inorganic mercuryand acids(Hg2+)Coal-burningplantIncineratorDepositionRunoff of Hg2+ and acidsDepositionWATERLarge fishVaporizationDepositionDepositionSmall fishBIOMAGNIFICATIONIN FOOD CHAINFigure 22.25Science: cycling of mercury in aquatic environments, in which mercury is converted from one form to another. The most toxic form to humans is methylmercury (CH3Hg+), which can be biologically magnified in aquatic food chains. Some mercury is also released back into the atmosphere as mercury vapor. QUESTION: What is your most likely exposure to mercury?PhytoplanktonZooplanktonBacteriaand acidsOxidationElementalmercury liquid(Hg)Inorganicmercury(Hg2+)Organicmercury(CH3Hg+)BacteriaSettlesoutSettlesoutSettlesoutSEDIMENT
54Global Outlook: International Action to Reduce Hazardous Waste An international treaty calls for phasing out the use of harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs).POPs are insoluble in water and soluble in fat.Nearly every person on earth has detectable levels of POPs in their blood.The U.S has not ratified this treaty.
55Making the Transition to a Low-Waste Society: A New Vision Everything is connected.There is no “away” for the wastes we produce.Dilution is not always the solution to pollution.The best and cheapest way to deal with wastes are reduction and pollution prevention.