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Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Waste Municipal 1.5% Sewage sludge 1% Mining and oil and gas production 75% Industry 9.5% Agriculture 13% Wheres the waste.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Waste Municipal 1.5% Sewage sludge 1% Mining and oil and gas production 75% Industry 9.5% Agriculture 13% Wheres the waste."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Waste

3 Municipal 1.5% Sewage sludge 1% Mining and oil and gas production 75% Industry 9.5% Agriculture 13% Wheres the waste from? You are included in this

4 What we throw away: Enough aluminum to rebuild all commercial airline fleets every 3 months Enough tires each year to encircle the Earth almost 3 times Enough disposable diapers in a year to lay end to end to the moon and back 7 times 130 million cell phones, 50 million computers, 8 million TVs per year Enough discarded carpet each year to cover the entire state of Delaware. Enough office paper each year to build a wall 11 feet high from San Francisco to NYC.

5 Average Life Spans Cell phone: Computer: Photocopier: Refrigerator: Calculator: Video camera: Digital camera: PDA: iPod: 18 months 3 years 10 years 5 years 3 years 4 years 3 years months

6 The 4 Rs Refuse Reduce Reuse Recycle

7 Sustainability Six 1. Consume less 2. Redesign manufacturing processes and products to use less energy and materials 3. Redesign manufacturing processes to produce less waste and pollution 4. Develop products that are easy to repair, reuse, remanufacture, compost, or recycle 5. Design products to last longer 6. Eliminate and reduce unnecessary packaging.

8 Topsoil Sand Clay Garbage Sand Synthetic liner Sand Clay Subsoil When landfill is full, layers of soil and clay seal in trash Methane storage and compressor building Electricity generator building Leachate treatment system Methane gas recovery Pipe collect explosive methane gas used as fuel to generate electricity Compacted solid waste Leachate storage tank Leachate monitoring well Groundwater monitoring well Leachate pipes Leachate pumped up to storage tanks for safe disposal Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks; pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill Bury it? Probes to detect methane leaks Groundwater

9 Advantages No open burning Little odor Low groundwater pollution if sited properly Can be built quickly Low operating costs Can handle large amounts of waste Filled land can be used for other purposes No shortage of landfill space in many areas Disadvantages Noise and traffic Dust Air pollution from toxic gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Releases greenhouse gases (methane and CO 2 ) unless they are collected Groundwater contamination Slow decomposition of wastes Discourages recycling waste reduction Eventually leaks and can contaminate groundwater Sanitary Landfills Trade-Offs

10 Hippocampus Animation Landfill

11 Power plant Steam TurbineGenerator Electricity Crane Furnace Boiler Wet scrubber Electrostatic precipitator Conveyor Water Bottom ash Conven- tional landfill Waste treatment Hazardous waste landfill Dirty water Waste pit Smokestack Fly ash Burn it?

12 Trade-Offs Reduced trash volume Less need for landfills Low water pollution Quick and easy Incineration High cost Air pollution (especially toxic dioxins) Produces a highly toxic ash Encourages waste production Discourages Recycling and waste reduction AdvantagesDisadvantages

13 Hippocampus Animation Incinerator

14 Hippocampus Animation Dioxin

15 Take a peek a posters on your bulletin board over the next few days.

16 What Harmful Chemicals Are In Your Home? Cleaning Disinfectants Drain, toilet, and window cleaners Spot removers Septic tank cleaners Paint Latex and oil-based paints Paint thinners, solvents, and strippers Stains, varnishes, and lacquers Wood preservatives Artist paints and inks General Dry-cell batteries (mercury and cadmium) Glues and cements Gardening Pesticides Weed killers Ant and rodent killers Flea powders Automotive Gasoline Used motor oil Antifreeze Battery acid Solvents Brake and transmission fluid Rust inhibitor and rust remover

17 Cleaning up toxic wastes Physical methods: allow particles to settle and be filtered out

18 Cleaning up toxic wastes Physical methods: allow particles to settle and be filtered out Phytoremediation: using plants to absorb, filter, and remove contaminants. May need to genetically modify plants.

19 Trade-Offs Phytoremediation AdvantagesDisadvantages Easy to establish Inexpensive Can reduce material dumped into land fills Produces little air pollution compared to incineration Low energy use Slow (can take several growing seasons) Effective only at depth plant roots can reach Some toxic organic chemicals may evaporate from plant leaves Some plants can become toxic to animals

20 A plant can do that? Sunflowers: can absorb radioactive materials (Strontium-90, Cesium- 137) and other organic chemicals. Done through hydroponic growth

21 Rhizofiltration Roots of plants have dangling roots on ponds or in greenhouses can absorb pollutants.

22 A plant can do that? Poplars, Willows: can absorb toxic organic compounds.

23 Phytostabilization Plants can absorb chemicals and keep them from reaching groundwater or nearby surface water.

24 Phytodegradation Plants absorb toxic organic chemicals and break them down into less harmful compounds which they store or release slowly into the air.

25 A plant can do that? Indian Mustard, Brake Ferns: can absorb toxic metals like lead and arsenic

26 Phytoextraction Roots of plants can absorb toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, and others and store them in their leaves. Plants can then be recycled or harvested and incinerated.

27 Inorganic metal contaminants Organic contaminants Radioactive contaminants Brake fern Poplar tree Indian mustard Oil spill Groundwater Soil Groundwater Polluted groundwater in Polluted leachate Decontaminated water out Landfill Willow tree Phytoextraction Roots of plants such as Indian mustard and brake ferns can absorb toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, and others and store them in their leaves. Plants can then be recycled or harvested and incinerated. Phytodegradation Plants such as poplars can absorb toxic organic chemicals and break them down into less harmful compounds which they store or release slowly into the air. Phytostabilization Plants such as willow trees and poplars can absorb chemicals and keep them from reaching groundwater or nearby surface water. Rhizofiltration Roots of plants such as sunflowers with dangling roots on ponds or in greenhouses can absorb pollutants such as radioactive strontium-90 and cesium-137 and various organic chemicals. Sunflower

28 Look how much plants can get rid of!!! Radioactive contaminants - ie: Strontium-90, Cesium-137 Organic contaminants - ie: gasoline, oil. etc. Inorganic metal contaminants - ie: lead, arsenic

29 Cleaning up toxic wastes Physical methods: allow particles to settle and be filtered out Phytoremediation: using plants to absorb, filter, and remove contaminants. May need to genetically modify plants. Deep-well disposal: pumping liquid hazard waste deep underground.

30 Advantages Safe method if sites are chosen carefully Wastes can be retrieved if problems develop Easy to do Low cost Disadvantages Leaks or spills at surface Leaks from corrosion of well casing Existing fractures or earthquakes can allow wastes to escape into groundwater Encourages waste production Trade-Offs Deep Underground Wells

31 Cleaning up toxic wastes Physical methods: allow particles to settle and be filtered out Phytoremediation: using plants to absorb, filter, and remove contaminants. May need to genetically modify plants. Deep-well disposal: pumping liquid hazard waste deep underground. Surface impoundment: use of ponds, pits, or lagoons. Water evaporates, toxins stay.

32 Trade-Offs Surface Impoundments AdvantagesDisadvantages Low construction costs Low operating costs Can be built quickly Wastes can be easily retrieved if necessary Can store wastes indefinitely with secure double liners Groundwater contamination from leaking liners (or no lining) Air pollution from volatile organic compounds Overflow from flooding Disruption and leakage from earthquakes Promotes waste production

33 Lead Found in: older paint (prior to 1970), ceramic glazes, leaded gasoline, solder/pipes, TV sets, computer monitors Humans exposed by: ingestion, exposure to waste incineration, inhalation of leaded gas fumes Health effects: mental retardation, blindness, partial paralysis, developmental delays

34 Solutions Lead Poisoning PreventionControl Wash fresh fruits and vegetables Sharply reduce lead emissions from old and new incinerators Replace lead pipes and plumbing fixtures containing lead solder Remove leaded paint and lead dust from older houses and apartments Remove lead from TV sets and computer monitors before incineration or land disposal Test for lead in existing ceramicware used to serve food Test existing candles for lead Phase out leaded gasoline worldwide Phase out waste incineration Test blood for lead by age 1 Ban lead solder in plumbing pipes, fixtures, and food cans Ban lead glazing for ceramicware used to serve food Ban candles with lead cores

35 Mercury Found in: fluorescent lights, thermometers, paints, dry-cell batteries, dental fillings, burning of coal Health effects: mental disorders, neurological problems, developmental delays, cerebral palsy, memory loss Humans exposed by: inhalation of mercury vapors, eating fish contaminated (biomagnification)

36 Figure Page 556 AIR WINDS PRECIPITATION WINDSPRECIPITATION WATER SEDIMENT BIOMAGNIFICATION IN FOOD CHAIN Human sources Elemental mercury vapor (Hg) Inorganic mercury and acids (Hg 2+ ) Inorganic mercury and acids (Hg 2+ ) Large fish Small fish PhytoplanktonZooplankton Elemental mercury liquid (Hg) Inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) Organic mercury (CH 3 Hg+) Deposition Vaporization Deposition Settles out Bacteria Bacteria and acids Settles out Oxidation Incinerator Coal- burning plant Photo- chemical oxidation Hg and SO 2 Hg 2+ and acids Bacteria Oxidation Settles out Runoff of Hg 2+ and acids Mercury in the environment

37 Solutions Mercury Pollution PreventionControl Sharply reduce mercury emissions from coal burning plants and incinerators Tax each unit of mercury emitted by coal-burning plants and incinerators Collect and recycle mercury containing electric switches, relays, and dry-cell batteries Require labels on all products containing mercury Phase out waste incineration Remove mercury from coal before it is burned Convert coal to liquid or gaseous fuel Switch from coal to natural gas and renewable energy resources such as wind, solar cells, and hydrogen Phase out use of mercury in all products unless they are recycled

38 Know your laws? RCRA – Resource Conservation & Recovery Act Gives EPA the authority to control hazardous waste from the "cradle-to- grave." This includes the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste.

39 Need a Stupid way to remember it? 1. RCRA sounds like Racecar 2. Just like the movie The Shining when the guy says REDRUM. 3. Again, think RCRA sounds like racecar or at least has the letters to spell it…..almost.

40 Well… you are little you cant wait to get out of the cradle or crib to a big bed like… Then you cant wait to drive a car. If you drive really fast like a RaCecAR driver, you will die and go in a grave. =

41 a ec A RC R This happens in Ms. Lolichs head

42 Know your case studies? You MUST know Love Canal, New York Bhopal, India View video clipView video clip (4:38)

43 Assignment Read pages 535 – 545 You will come up with 3 specific things you can do in each of the following areas: refuse, reuse, reduce, recycle, Only include ideas that you could ACTUALLY do. You will end up with at least 4 paragraphs (one per area)


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