Presentation on theme: "Solid and Hazardous Waste"— Presentation transcript:
1 Solid and Hazardous Waste Chapter 24Solid and Hazardous Waste
2 You are included in this Where’s the waste from?Municipal1.5%Sewage sludge1%Mining and oiland gasproduction75%Industry9.5%Agriculture13%You are included in this
3 What we throw away:Enough aluminum to rebuild all commercial airline fleets every 3 monthsEnough tires each year to encircle the Earth almost 3 timesEnough disposable diapers in a year to lay end to end to the moon and back 7 times130 million cell phones, 50 million computers, 8 million TV’s per yearEnough discarded carpet each year to cover the entire state of Delaware.Enough office paper each year to build a wall 11 feet high from San Francisco to NYC.
6 Sustainability Six 1. Consume less 2. Redesign manufacturing processes and products to use less energy and materials3. Redesign manufacturing processes to produce less waste and pollution4. Develop products that are easy to repair, reuse, remanufacture, compost, or recycle5. Design products to last longer6. Eliminate and reduce unnecessary packaging.
7 Bury it? Leachate treatment system Compacted solid waste When landfill is full,layers of soil and clayseal in trashElectricitygeneratorbuildingMethane storageand compressorbuildingTopsoilLeachatetreatment systemSandClayGarbagePipe collect explosivemethane gas used as fuelto generate electricityMethane gasrecoveryProbes to detect methane leaksLeachatestorage tankCompactedsolid wasteGroundwatermonitoringwellLeachatemonitoringwellLeachate pipesLeachate pumped upto storage tanks forsafe disposalGarbageSandGroundwaterSynthetic linerClay and plastic liningto prevent leaks; pipescollect leachate frombottom of landfillSandBury it?ClaySubsoil
8 Low groundwater pollution if sited properly Can be built quickly Trade-OffsSanitary LandfillsAdvantagesDisadvantagesNo open burningLittle odorLow groundwater pollution ifsited properlyCan be built quicklyLow operating costsCan handle large amounts of wasteFilled land can be used for otherpurposesNo shortage of landfill space inmany areasNoise and trafficDustAir pollution from toxic gases and volatile organiccompounds (VOCs)Releases greenhouse gases (methane and CO2) unless they are collectedGroundwater contaminationSlow decomposition of wastesDiscourages recycling waste reductionEventually leaks and can contaminate groundwater
14 Take a peek a posters on your bulletin board over the next few days.
15 What Harmful Chemicals Are In Your Home? Cleaning• Disinfectants• Drain, toilet, andwindow cleaners• Spot removers• Septic tank cleanersPaint• Latex and oil-based paints• Paint thinners, solvents,and strippers• Stains, varnishes,and lacquers• Wood preservatives• Artist paints and inksGeneral• Dry-cell batteries(mercury and cadmium)• Glues and cementsGardening• Pesticides• Weed killers• Ant and rodent killers• Flea powdersAutomotive• Gasoline• Used motor oil• Antifreeze• Battery acid• Solvents• Brake and transmissionfluid• Rust inhibitor andrust remover
16 Cleaning up toxic wastes Physical methods: allow particles to settle and be filtered out
17 Cleaning up toxic wastes Physical methods: allow particles to settle and be filtered outPhytoremediation: using plants to absorb, filter, and remove contaminants. May need to genetically modify plants.
18 Trade-OffsPhytoremediationAdvantagesDisadvantagesEasy to establishInexpensiveCan reduce material dumped into land fillsProduces little air pollution compared to incinerationLow energy useSlow (can take several growing seasons)Effective only at depth plant roots can reachSome toxic organic chemicals may evaporate from plant leavesSome plants can become toxic to animals
19 A plant can do that?Sunflowers: can absorb radioactive materials (Strontium-90, Cesium-137) and other organic chemicals.Done through hydroponic growth
20 RhizofiltrationRoots of plants have dangling roots on ponds or in greenhouses can absorb pollutants.
21 A plant can do that?Poplars, Willows: can absorb toxic organic compounds.
22 PhytostabilizationPlants can absorb chemicals and keep them from reaching groundwater or nearby surface water.
23 PhytodegradationPlants absorb toxic organic chemicals and break them down into less harmful compounds which they store or release slowly into the air.
24 A plant can do that?Indian Mustard, Brake Ferns: can absorb toxic metals like lead and arsenic
25 PhytoextractionRoots of plants can absorb toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, and others and store them in their leaves.Plants can then be recycled or harvested and incinerated.
26 Inorganic metal contaminants Radioactive contaminantsOrganic contaminantsInorganic metal contaminantsPoplar treeBrake fernSunflowerWillow treeIndian mustardLandfillOilspillPollutedgroundwaterinDecontaminatedwater outPollutedleachateSoilSoilGroundwaterGroundwaterRhizofiltrationRoots of plants such as sunflowers with dangling roots on ponds or in greenhouses can absorb pollutants such as radioactive strontium-90 and cesium-137 and various organic chemicals.Phytostabilization Plants such as willow trees and poplars can absorb chemicals and keep them from reaching groundwater or nearby surface water.PhytodegradationPlants such as poplars can absorb toxic organic chemicals and break them down into less harmful compounds which they store or release slowly into the air.Phytoextraction Roots of plants such as Indian mustard and brake ferns can absorb toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, and others and store them in their leaves. Plants can then be recycled or harvested and incinerated.
27 Look how much plants can get rid of!!! Radioactive contaminants- ie: Strontium-90, Cesium-137Organic contaminants- ie: gasoline, oil. etc.Inorganic metal contaminants- ie: lead, arsenic
28 Cleaning up toxic wastes Physical methods: allow particles to settle and be filtered outPhytoremediation: using plants to absorb, filter, and remove contaminants. May need to genetically modify plants.Deep-well disposal: pumping liquid hazard waste deep underground.
29 Deep Underground Wells Trade-OffsDeep Underground WellsAdvantagesDisadvantagesLeaks or spills atsurfaceLeaks fromcorrosion of wellcasingExisting fracturesor earthquakescan allow wastesto escape intogroundwaterEncourageswaste productionSafe method ifsites are chosencarefullyWastes can beretrieved ifproblemsdevelopEasy to doLow cost
30 Cleaning up toxic wastes Physical methods: allow particles to settle and be filtered outPhytoremediation: using plants to absorb, filter, and remove contaminants. May need to genetically modify plants.Deep-well disposal: pumping liquid hazard waste deep underground.Surface impoundment: use of ponds, pits, or lagoons. Water evaporates, toxins stay.
31 Trade-OffsSurface ImpoundmentsAdvantagesDisadvantagesLow constructioncostsLow operatingCan be builtquicklyWastes can beeasily retrievedif necessaryCan store wastesindefinitely withsecure doublelinersGroundwatercontaminationfrom leaking liners(or no lining)Air pollution fromvolatile organiccompoundsOverflow fromfloodingDisruption andleakage fromearthquakesPromotes wasteproduction
32 LeadFound in: older paint (prior to 1970), ceramic glazes, leaded gasoline, solder/pipes, TV sets, computer monitorsHumans exposed by: ingestion, exposure to waste incineration, inhalation of leaded gas fumesHealth effects: mental retardation, blindness, partial paralysis, developmental delays
33 Test blood for lead by age 1 SolutionsLead PoisoningPreventionControlSharply reduce lead emissions from old and new incineratorsPhase out leadedgasoline worldwideReplace lead pipes andplumbing fixturescontaining lead solderPhase out wasteincinerationRemove leaded paint and lead dust from olderhouses and apartmentsTest blood for lead by age 1Ban lead solder inplumbing pipes, fixtures,and food cansRemove lead from TV sets and computer monitors before incineration or land disposalTest for lead in existingceramicware used to serve foodBan lead glazing forceramicware used toserve foodTest existing candlesfor leadBan candles withlead coresWash fresh fruits andvegetables
35 Figure 24-26 Page 556 Mercury in the environment Deposition AIR WINDS PRECIPITATIONWINDSPRECIPITATIONFigure Page 556Hg and SO2Hg2+ and acidsHg2+ and acidsHuman sourcesElementalmercuryvapor(Hg)Photo-chemical oxidationInorganicmercuryand acids(Hg2+)Inorganic mercuryand acids(Hg2+)IncineratorCoal-burning plantDepositionRunoff of Hg2+ and acidsWATERLarge fishDepositionDepositionVaporizationSmall fishBIOMAGNIFICATIONIN FOOD CHAINPhytoplanktonZooplanktonOxidationBacteria and acidsElementalmercuryliquid (Hg)Inorganicmercury(Hg2+)Organicmercury(CH3Hg+)BacteriaSettles outSettles outSettles outSEDIMENTMercury in the environmentBacteriaOxidationBacteria
36 Solutions Mercury Pollution Prevention Control Phase out waste incinerationSharply reduce mercury emissions from coal burning plants and incineratorsRemove mercury from coal before it is burnedTax each unit of mercury emitted by coal-burning plants and incineratorsConvert coal to liquid or gaseous fuelSwitch from coal to natural gas and renewable energy resources such as wind, solar cells, and hydrogenCollect and recycle mercury containing electric switches, relays, and dry-cell batteriesRequire labels on all products containing mercuryPhase out use of mercury in all products unless they are recycled
37 Know your laws? RCRA – Resource Conservation & Recovery Act Gives EPA the authority to control hazardous waste from the "cradle-to-grave."This includes the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste.
38 Need a Stupid way to remember it? 1. RCRA sounds like Racecar 2. Just like the movie “The Shining” when the guy says REDRUM. 3. Again, think RCRA sounds like racecar or at least has the letters to spell it…..almost.
39 Well… you are little you can’t wait to get out of the cradle or crib to a big bed like… Then you can’t wait to drive a car. If you drive really fast like a RaCecAR driver, you will die and go in a grave.=
41 Know your case studies? You MUST know Love Canal, New York Bhopal, IndiaView video clip (4:38)
42 Assignment Read pages 535 – 545 You will come up with 3 specific things you can do in each of the following areas:refuse, reuse, reduce, recycle,Only include ideas that you could ACTUALLY do.You will end up with at least 4 paragraphs (one per area)