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Contents: Overheads to be used with Chapter 8 of Truth in the Balance, copyright 2003 by David Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T. REVISION DATE 02/14/2013 This.

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Presentation on theme: "Contents: Overheads to be used with Chapter 8 of Truth in the Balance, copyright 2003 by David Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T. REVISION DATE 02/14/2013 This."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contents: Overheads to be used with Chapter 8 of Truth in the Balance, copyright 2003 by David Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T. REVISION DATE 02/14/2013 This material is made available by the author at no charge. It may be reproduced for use in a Christian environment such as Sunday schools or Bible classes, but it may not be used for any commercial purposes. To be certain that you have the most up-to-date version of this material, go to the Origins Resource Association website, Follow the links to Bible College Materials and check that the revision date shown online is the same as shown above. If not, download the latest version by David A. Prentice

2 The Hebrew word for day is (YOM). Depending on context, it can mean 1. A 24 hour day, 2. The daylight portion of a day, or 3. An indefinite period of time. Every time throughout the Old Testament that is used with a number (over 350 times outside Genesis Chapter 1) it always means a 24 hour day. This is the way it appears in the Creation account. 8-1 God obviously intended to say that these were 24 hour days. God obviously intended to say that these were 24 hour days. HOW LONG ARE THE Days in Genesis?

3 2007 by David A. Prentice All Scripture is inspired by God... but this Scripture was written with His own finger. For [in] six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them [is]... (Exod. 20:11) 8-2

4 2007 by David A. Prentice YEARS SINCE CREATION (Massoretic Text) ADAM years SETH yrs d ENOSH yrs d KENAN yrs d MAHALALEL yrs d JARED yrs d ENOCH, 365 yrs (walked with God) METHUSALEH yrs, d LAMECH yrs d NOAH yrs d Death of Adam 1656 THE FLOOD Death of Noah SHEM yrs d Arpachshad, d Shelah, d Eber, d Peleg, d Reu, d Serug, d Nahor-- 147, d Terah , d Abraham- 195, d Isaac , d Jacob- 149, d Earth divided Tower of Babel (between 1757 and 1996) by David A. Prentice 8-3

5 2007 by David A. Prentice 8-4 Since we cant be sure of any of these for any clock in nature, we should use many different methods to determine a maximum possible age. Out of all the dating methods, less than 10% point toward a maximum of billions of years. The rest point toward millions or even thousands. Since we cant be sure of any of these for any clock in nature, we should use many different methods to determine a maximum possible age. Out of all the dating methods, less than 10% point toward a maximum of billions of years. The rest point toward millions or even thousands. Characteristics of an Accurate Clock 1. Initial conditions known. What time did the clock say when it was wound up? 2. Known rate of change. The clock need not always run at the same rate, but if it changes we must know when and by how much. 3. Closed system. The clock must not have been reset or tampered with.

6 2007 by David A. Prentice Maximum Ages Given by a Number of Clocks Maximum Ages Given by a Number of Clocks INDICATOR MAX. AGE 1. Recession of the Moon1,370,000, Breakup of Galaxy Clusters1,000,000, Spiral Galaxies1,000,000, Influx of salt (NaCl) to the oceans 100,000, Thickness and temperature gradient of earths crust 45,000, Atmospheric helium 4,000, Instability of Saturns rings 1,000, Volcanic activity on Io1,000, Poynting-Robertson Effect on space dust200, High pressure oil & gas wells100, Thickness of Nile sediment30, Atmospheric C-1430, Influx of salt to the Dead Sea13, Short-period comets10, Decay in strength of earths magnetic field10, Influx of Uranium to the oceans10,000 and many others. The true age could be anything less. 8-5

7 2007 by David A. Prentice 1. If its only a few thousand years old, what was God doing all that time before He created it? 2. Starting from a big bang, it would have taken billions of years to reach its present size. (Unless inflation is correct!) 3. How could light from stars billions of light years away reach us in only a few thousand years? Reasons for Believing the Universe is Old 8-6

8 2007 by David A. Prentice How Can we See Light from Stars Billions of Light Years Away if the Earth is Young? 1. Size of universe unknown - calculated based on a series of assumptions. 2. Possible answers: i. Light Paths from the stars. Many object to this on philosophical grounds. If God created impressions of supernovae in the light paths, then He made us see things that never actually happened. 2. Possible answers: i. Light Paths from the stars. Many object to this on philosophical grounds. If God created impressions of supernovae in the light paths, then He made us see things that never actually happened. ii. Curved Space. 8-7

9 2007 by David A. Prentice CURVED SPACE Relativity says that gravity distorts space, much like a weight distorts the surface of a rubber membrane. Light would not have to go to the bottom of the well to go from A to B. It would take the shortest route, through curved space. MITs Moon & Spencer calculate that it would take no more than years for light to travel between any two points in the universe. Untestable -- and few believe them -- but their mathematics are sound. Light would not have to go to the bottom of the well to go from A to B. It would take the shortest route, through curved space. MITs Moon & Spencer calculate that it would take no more than years for light to travel between any two points in the universe. Untestable -- and few believe them -- but their mathematics are sound. Gravity well - a distortion in space caused by the presence of matter (shaded area) A B 8-8

10 2007 by David A. Prentice 1. Size of universe unknown - calculated based on a series of assumptions. 2. Possible answers: i. Light Paths from the stars. ii. Curved Space. iii. Speed of light may have been much faster in the past. 2. Possible answers: i. Light Paths from the stars. ii. Curved Space. iii. Speed of light may have been much faster in the past. 8-9 How Can we See Light from Stars Billions of Light Years Away if the Earth is Young?

11 2007 by David A. Prentice Best fit curve to speed-of-light values determined from showing apparent exponential decay. (After Setterfield & Norman, The Atomic Constants, Light and Time.) Cautions: (1) Little data is available from before (2) The decrease is less than 1/3 of 1% - not enough to con- vince most scientists. IS LIGHT SLOWING DOWN? 8-10

12 2007 by David A. Prentice Possible Effects of a Slowdown in the Speed of Light Possible Effects of a Slowdown in the Speed of Light 1. Tired Light traveling through space would receive a red shift as it slowed down. 2. Radioactive decay rates are thought to depend on the speed of light. An extremely high speed in the first few days would have released a great deal of heat, helping to separate the waters above the firmament from the waters below. 3. In a short time, these accelerated radioactive decay rates would have produced many radioactive daughter products thought to require millions or billions of years. 8-11

13 2007 by David A. Prentice Best fit curve to speed-of-light values determined from showing apparent exponential decay. (After Setterfield & Norman, The Atomic Constants, Light and Time.) Cautions: (1) Little data is available from before (2) The decrease is less than 1/3 of 1% - not enough to con- vince most scientists. IS LIGHT SLOWING DOWN? 8-12

14 2007 by David A. Prentice 1. Size of universe unknown - calculated based on a series of assumptions. 2. Possible answers: i. Light Paths from the stars. ii. Curved Space. iii. Speed of light may have been much faster in the past. iv. Light may travel faster in deep space than close to earth. 2. Possible answers: i. Light Paths from the stars. ii. Curved Space. iii. Speed of light may have been much faster in the past. iv. Light may travel faster in deep space than close to earth How Can we See Light from Stars Billions of Light Years Away if the Earth is Young?

15 2007 by David A. Prentice 1. Sound and pressure waves require a medium such as air in order to propagate. 2. The only place we can measure the speed of light is right here on earth. It moves slower in a dense medium such as water, and faster in a vacuum. 3. In space, light (radiant energy) does not seem to need a medium on which to travel. It seems to move like a particle. 4. We assume that light travels at the same speed through- out space. But what if there is a medium we have over- looked such as electromagnetic or gravitational fields? It would stand to reason that light could move at different speeds in deep space where such fields are weaker. In the past, there has been no way to test the speed of light in deep space. However, the Pioneer anomaly shows that it may not be constant. In the past, there has been no way to test the speed of light in deep space. However, the Pioneer anomaly shows that it may not be constant. LIGHT IN DEEP SPACE 8-14

16 2007 by David A. Prentice THE PIONEER ANOMALY In the early 1970s, NASA launched twin spacecraft known as Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 in opposite directions. As these craft went farther and farther from earth, scientists were puzzled by the fact that a radio signal beamed to each took less time coming back to earth than was ex- pected. The problem is unsolved, but most be- lieve that the spacecraft slowed down be- cause of invisible matter. THE UNIVERSALLY IGNORED ALTERNATIVE: If light travels faster as it moves farther away from the suns gravity, we would expect to see exactly such an anomaly! NASA picture of Pioneer

17 2007 by David A. Prentice 1. Size of universe unknown - calculated based on a series of assumptions. 2. Possible answers: i. Light Paths from the stars. ii. Curved Space. iii. Speed of light may have been much faster in the past. iv. Light may travel faster in deep space than close to earth. v. Gravitational Time Dilation. 2. Possible answers: i. Light Paths from the stars. ii. Curved Space. iii. Speed of light may have been much faster in the past. iv. Light may travel faster in deep space than close to earth. v. Gravitational Time Dilation How Can we See Light from Stars Billions of Light Years Away if the Earth is Young?

18 2007 by David A. Prentice 1. Space is 4-dimensional and exists only where matter and energy are present. 2. The earliest matter existed in the form of hydrogen only. 3. All matter was concentrated in an almost infinitely dense point known as a singularity. 4. The expansion began 7.5 to 15 billion years ago and is still going on today. 5. The universe is expanding at an ever- increasing rate. 6. Since space is unbounded, there is no center and no edge. Earth has no special status. 7. Since there is no center for gravity to point toward, the universe has never been in a black hole. 8. The heavenly bodies formed as clouds of gas and dust came together by gravity. 1. Space is 4-dimensional but does not re- quire matter or energy in order to exist. 2. The earliest form of matter was water (hydrogen and oxygen). 3. All matter was concentrated in a sphere of ordinary water with a diameter of up to 2 light years. 4. The expansion began on day 2 when God separated the waters above the firmament from the waters below. 5. There may be a small amount of expansion today, but most of it was complete by the end of the creation week. 6. Matter fills only a small part of 4- dimensional space. There is a definite center and edge. Earth started close to the center and may still be close. 7. Since there is a center, the universe began in a black hole. God changed it to a white hole on Day 2 of the creation week. 8. The expanding waters furnished raw material for the heavenly bodies. Big Bang Humphreys Model (White Hole Expansion) Humphreys Model (White Hole Expansion) 8-17

19 2007 by David A. Prentice HUMPHREYS MODEL OF SPACE presence of matter distorts space and time presence of matter distorts space and time 4-dimensional space exists whether or not matter is present 4-dimensional space exists whether or not matter is present matter (our 3- dimensional universe) fills only part of the 4-dimensional hypersphere of space matter (our 3- dimensional universe) fills only part of the 4-dimensional hypersphere of space matter empty space 8-18

20 2007 by David A. Prentice A black hole is a theoretical concentration of mass so great that not even light can escape its gravitational pull. Since the force of gravity drops off by the square of the distance, there is a radius called the event horizon outside which light will not be drawn in. The theory of relativity says that bizarre things happen to time near and inside the event horizon. A black hole is a theoretical concentration of mass so great that not even light can escape its gravitational pull. Since the force of gravity drops off by the square of the distance, there is a radius called the event horizon outside which light will not be drawn in. The theory of relativity says that bizarre things happen to time near and inside the event horizon. BLACK HOLES 8-19

21 2007 by David A. Prentice GRAVITATIONAL TIME D I L A T I O N I. START OF EXPANSION Sphere of water has diameter of perhaps 2 light years. Depending on exact amount of matter, event horizon may be as much as 450,000,000 light years. Since everything is inside the black/white hole, time is uniform throughout the matter (water) sphere. I. START OF EXPANSION Sphere of water has diameter of perhaps 2 light years. Depending on exact amount of matter, event horizon may be as much as 450,000,000 light years. Since everything is inside the black/white hole, time is uniform throughout the matter (water) sphere.. Sphere of water Earth Event horizon (not to scale) Source: Russell Humphreys, Starlight and Time 8-20

22 2007 by David A. Prentice Sphere of water continues to expand, but has not yet reached event horizon. Time continues to be uniform throughout the matter (water) sphere. Sphere of water continues to expand, but has not yet reached event horizon. Time continues to be uniform throughout the matter (water) sphere.. Sphere of water Earth Event horizon (not to scale) GRAVITATIONAL TIME D I L A T I O N 8-21

23 2007 by David A. Prentice Sphere of water continues to expand, but has not yet reached event horizon. Time continues to be uniform throughout the matter (water) sphere. Sphere of water continues to expand, but has not yet reached event horizon. Time continues to be uniform throughout the matter (water) sphere.. Sphere of water Earth Event horizon (not to scale) GRAVITATIONAL TIME D I L A T I O N 8-22

24 2007 by David A. Prentice Sphere of water continues to expand, but has not yet reached event horizon. Time continues to be uniform throughout the matter (water) sphere. Sphere of water continues to expand, but has not yet reached event horizon. Time continues to be uniform throughout the matter (water) sphere.. Sphere of water Earth Event horizon (not to scale) GRAVITATIONAL TIME D I L A T I O N 8-23

25 2007 by David A. Prentice II. MATTER REACHES EVENT HORIZON. Matter has spread to event horizon. Expansion of space is not bound by the speed of light; may have been times faster, so process need not take more than a few earth hours. Time still more or less uniform throughout, though beginning to speed up at the edge. II. MATTER REACHES EVENT HORIZON. Matter has spread to event horizon. Expansion of space is not bound by the speed of light; may have been times faster, so process need not take more than a few earth hours. Time still more or less uniform throughout, though beginning to speed up at the edge.. Earth Event horizon GRAVITATIONAL TIME D I L A T I O N 8-24

26 2007 by David A. Prentice. Edge of universe (expanding water sphere) Earth II. MATTER BEGINS TO PASS EVENT HORIZON. Matter begins to pass the event horizon; as it leaves, the horizon begins to shrink. Proper time outside horizon begins to move much faster than inside. II. MATTER BEGINS TO PASS EVENT HORIZON. Matter begins to pass the event horizon; as it leaves, the horizon begins to shrink. Proper time outside horizon begins to move much faster than inside. Shrinking event horizon GRAVITATIONAL TIME D I L A T I O N 8-25

27 2007 by David A. Prentice. Edge of universe (expanding water sphere) Earth Shrinking event horizon Matter continues to pass the event horizon; the more that leaves, the more the horizon shrinks. Proper time outside the horizon moves faster and faster relative to the inside. The parts inside (e.g, the earth) experience a much slower passage of time than the parts outside. Matter continues to pass the event horizon; the more that leaves, the more the horizon shrinks. Proper time outside the horizon moves faster and faster relative to the inside. The parts inside (e.g, the earth) experience a much slower passage of time than the parts outside. GRAVITATIONAL TIME D I L A T I O N 8-26

28 2007 by David A. Prentice. Edge of universe (expanding water sphere) Earth Shrinking event horizon IV. EVENT HORIZON SHRINKS TO NOTHING. As more matter leaves the event horizon, it shrinks away to nothing. Since the earth is fairly close to the center, it would have stayed inside the event horizon longer than most of the universe. Much less proper time would have elapsed on earth than in the far reaches of space. Millions of years could pass in space during one day on earth. IV. EVENT HORIZON SHRINKS TO NOTHING. As more matter leaves the event horizon, it shrinks away to nothing. Since the earth is fairly close to the center, it would have stayed inside the event horizon longer than most of the universe. Much less proper time would have elapsed on earth than in the far reaches of space. Millions of years could pass in space during one day on earth. GRAVITATIONAL TIME D I L A T I O N 8-27

29 2007 by David A. Prentice 1. Size of universe unknown - calculated based on a series of assumptions. 2. Possible answers: i. Light Paths from the stars. ii. Curved Space. iii. Speed of light may have been much faster in the past. iv. Light may travel faster in deep space than close to earth. v. Gravitational Time Dilation. vi. Unknown Factors. 2. Possible answers: i. Light Paths from the stars. ii. Curved Space. iii. Speed of light may have been much faster in the past. iv. Light may travel faster in deep space than close to earth. v. Gravitational Time Dilation. vi. Unknown Factors How Can we See Light from Stars Billions of Light Years Away if the Earth is Young?

30 2007 by David A. Prentice BREAKUP OF GALAXY CLUSTERS Based on red and blue shifts, many galaxy clusters seem to be breaking apart. Astronomers have detected nowhere near the amount of mass in these clusters to hold them together for billions of years. Ninety to ninety-nine percent of the matter is missing. Evolutionists say it must be cold dark matter which we have no way to detect. Coma ClusterVirgo Cluster NASAPhotosNASAPhotos The alternative? Maybe theyre not really billions of years old! 8-29

31 2007 by David A. Prentice SPIRAL GALAXIES There are many spiral galaxies throughout the universe. The arms wind in toward the center with each revolution. Within a few hundred million years there would be no arms left. NASA photos of spiral galaxies M81 and M101. Some of the stars in spiral galaxies are supposed to be more than ten billion years old. However, the arms on the galaxies point to an age of far less than one billion years. Some of the stars in spiral galaxies are supposed to be more than ten billion years old. However, the arms on the galaxies point to an age of far less than one billion years. 8-30

32 2007 by David A. Prentice DIFFERING LIFE SPANS OF STARS 1. All stars are believed to be performing nuclear fusion. 2. Since the rate of fusion depend on a stars mass, the most massive stars should burn out in novae and supernovae first. 3. Young stars are supposed to be made from recycled super-nova remnants. They should contain the heavier elements supposedly produced in supernovae. 4. S maller stars should be able to last billions of years without going through the nova or supernova stage. 5. The farthest visible stars are supposed to be billions of years old, dating to shortly after the Big Bang. 6. The smaller of these extremely distant stars should not have gone through supernovae. Billions of them should contain only hydrogen and helium. 7. However, spectral analysis has not located a single metal-free star. Within a percent or so, stars of all ages contain the same elements. Maybe they are not different ages after all. 8-31

33 2007 by David A. Prentice TECHNETIUM IN OLD STARS 1. Every known isotope of the element Technetium (atomic number 43) is radioactive. 2. Half of any radioactive sample decays into a different element within a period of time known as a half-life. (Each isotope has a different half-life.) Within about 10 half-lives, just about all of the beginning amount is gone. 3. Since the longest-lived isotope of Technetium has a half-life of about 4.2 million years, within about 42 million years (10 half- lives) it should be all gone. 4. There is not even a theoretical mechanism to produce new Technetium, so none should exist in extremely old objects. 5. The problem: Technetium (which according to present theory cant be more than a few million years old) is seen in the spec- tra of many stars that are supposed to be billions of years old. Maybe the stars just arent that old! 8-32

34 2007 by David A. Prentice SUPERNOVA REMNANTS A supernova occurs about every 25 years in a galaxy the size of our Milky Way. According to evolu- tionary theory, the remnants go through 3 stages. A supernova occurs about every 25 years in a galaxy the size of our Milky Way. According to evolu- tionary theory, the remnants go through 3 stages. NASA photo of the Crab Nebula, a well- known supernova remnant Number of SNRs That Should Be Detectable In Milky Way: Stage I Stage II Stage III If Galaxy at Least ,000,000 Years Old: If about 7,000 Years Actual Number Detected The data are consistent with a young galaxy, not an old one. 8-33

35 2007 by David A. Prentice SHORT PERIOD COMETS NASA photo of Halleys Comet, a typical short period comet Short period comets orbit the sun at least once every 200 years. Comets lose a significant amount of mass each time they fly by the sun. Within about 10,000 years all the short period comets would be gone. Yet there are still hundreds (at least). This points toward a maximum age of the solar system of less than 10,000 years. This points toward a maximum age of the solar system of less than 10,000 years. Halleys, like many other short period comets, orbits outside the plane of the solar system. 8-34

36 2007 by David A. Prentice THE OORT CLOUD A hypothetical cloud of hundreds of billions of potential comets outside the solar system. Supposedly, every so often one gets dislodged by the gravitational effects of nearby stars and falls toward the sun as a new short period comet. Since no one has ever seen it, the Oort Cloud is supposed to be just beyond the range of our best telescopes. It seems to keep moving farther away each time we get better telescopes. Since no one has ever seen it, the Oort Cloud is supposed to be just beyond the range of our best telescopes. It seems to keep moving farther away each time we get better telescopes. 8-35

37 2007 by David A. Prentice COMETS AND THE KUIPER BELT Orbits of several short period comets compared to the planets A number of objects past Pluto are believed to belong to the Kuiper Belt, supposed to extend slightly above and below the plane of the solar system. However, short period comets orbit the sun in many different planes. Only a few of them could possibly have come from the Kuiper Belt. A number of objects past Pluto are believed to belong to the Kuiper Belt, supposed to extend slightly above and below the plane of the solar system. However, short period comets orbit the sun in many different planes. Only a few of them could possibly have come from the Kuiper Belt. 8-36

38 2007 by David A. Prentice THE RINGS OF SATURN NASA probes show that Saturns rings are composed of fine particles. The rings should have fallen apart within a million years or so. Scientists are still looking for ways they could stay together for billions of years. Maybe they are not billions of years old after all. NASA photos 8-37

39 2007 by David A. Prentice VOLCANIC ACTIVITY ON IO In 1979 the Voyager spacecraft discovered a volcanic eruption on Jupiters tiny moon Io more violent than any ever seen on earth. If the solar system is billions of years old, small objects far from the sun should be cold and inactive. However, Io is the most geologically active body known in the solar system. NASA photo of volcanic eruption on Io Maybe the solar system is not billions of years old after all. 8-38

40 2007 by David A. Prentice 8-39 Excess Heat From The Outer Planets If the planets began billions of years ago from the collapse of a superheated planetary disk, their surface temperatures at the beginning would have been measured in thousands of degrees. As time went on, they would have radiated excess energy into space until their heat output exactly matched the heat input from the sun. THE PROBLEM: Jupiter puts out about 3 x watts more power than it takes in; Saturn, though only ¼ the mass, puts out about ½ as much; and Neptune emits about twice as much energy as it receives. Either there is some mysterious, unknown energy source in these planets to keep them hot for so long, or else they are just not that old! Source: Samec, 2007, The Heavens Declare... A Young Solar System

41 2007 by David A. Prentice POYNTING-ROBERTSON EFFECT Light streaming from the sun does not have enough force to knock dust particles outward away from the sun; instead, it slows them down so that they gradually spiral into the sun. Light streaming from the sun does not have enough force to knock dust particles outward away from the sun; instead, it slows them down so that they gradually spiral into the sun. Within about 189,000 years, all dust particles 1/10 mm or smaller would have been vacuumed up at least as far as earths orbit. However, a great deal of dust this size falls on the earth every year. Within about 189,000 years, all dust particles 1/10 mm or smaller would have been vacuumed up at least as far as earths orbit. However, a great deal of dust this size falls on the earth every year. This implies that the solar system is far less than 189,000 years old. This implies that the solar system is far less than 189,000 years old. Light coming from sun Apparent direction of light seen by dust particle resisting its forward motion Motion of dust particle slows down 8-40

42 2007 by David A. Prentice RECESSION OF THE MOON In the absence of external forces, the angular momentum of a rotating system must be conserved. As the rate of rotation decreases the diameter must increase, and vice versa. (Like a figure skater on TV.) earth moon As the moon orbits the earth, its force of attraction causes tides and bulges. This slows the earths rotation down by about 2/1000 of a second per day each century. In order to conserve angular momentum as the earth - moon system slows down, the moon has to move away. The present rate of recession is between 3 and 4 cm/yr. If the moon started at the surface of the earth, it would have taken no more than 1.37 billion years to reach its present distance -- 3 billion years less than evolution requires. 8-41

43 2007 by David A. Prentice The Solar Temperature Dilemma (the Faint Young Sun Paradox) The Solar Temperature Dilemma (the Faint Young Sun Paradox) The sun has to work by nuclear fusion, or else it would have burned out in a few hundred thousand years. The problem: Nuclear fusion causes a gradual temperature increase. The sun would have been about 5% cooler a billion years ago. The earth would have been covered with a crust of ice and would have been unable to sustain the plant life we find in the fossil record, some of which is supposed to be over 3 billion years old. The sun has to work by nuclear fusion, or else it would have burned out in a few hundred thousand years. The problem: Nuclear fusion causes a gradual temperature increase. The sun would have been about 5% cooler a billion years ago. The earth would have been covered with a crust of ice and would have been unable to sustain the plant life we find in the fossil record, some of which is supposed to be over 3 billion years old. 8-42

44 2007 by David A. Prentice ARGUMENTS FOR A YOUNG SUN 1. PRESENCE OF BERYLLIUM. Since the sun is supposed to be about 4.6 billion years old, evolutionary theory says its temperature should be about 15 million degrees. However, spectral analysis shows that it contains a great deal of beryllium, which breaks down at 4 million. We can conclude that it must be less than 4 million degrees. This is compatible with a young star, not an old one. Either evolutionary theory is wrong, or the sun is not as old and hot as its supposed to be, or both. 1. PRESENCE OF BERYLLIUM. Since the sun is supposed to be about 4.6 billion years old, evolutionary theory says its temperature should be about 15 million degrees. However, spectral analysis shows that it contains a great deal of beryllium, which breaks down at 4 million. We can conclude that it must be less than 4 million degrees. This is compatible with a young star, not an old one. Either evolutionary theory is wrong, or the sun is not as old and hot as its supposed to be, or both. 2. RADIAL OSCILLATION. If the sun has been burning for billions of years it should have developed a dense core by now. However, the rate at which it oscillates in and out due to the op- posing forces of gravity and heat is incompatible with a dense core. It must not have been burning long enough to develop such a core. 2. RADIAL OSCILLATION. If the sun has been burning for billions of years it should have developed a dense core by now. However, the rate at which it oscillates in and out due to the op- posing forces of gravity and heat is incompatible with a dense core. It must not have been burning long enough to develop such a core. gravity pulls in heat pushes out 8-43


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