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EVIDENCE-INFORMED INTERVENTIONS FOR ADDRESSING ADOLESCENT RELATIONSHIP ABUSE (ARA) IN SBHCS Sandi Goldstein, MPH California Adolescent Health Collaborative.

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Presentation on theme: "EVIDENCE-INFORMED INTERVENTIONS FOR ADDRESSING ADOLESCENT RELATIONSHIP ABUSE (ARA) IN SBHCS Sandi Goldstein, MPH California Adolescent Health Collaborative."— Presentation transcript:

1 EVIDENCE-INFORMED INTERVENTIONS FOR ADDRESSING ADOLESCENT RELATIONSHIP ABUSE (ARA) IN SBHCS Sandi Goldstein, MPH California Adolescent Health Collaborative Lisa James, MA Futures Without Violence

2 At the end of this session, participants will be better able to: demonstrate a greater understanding of the prevalence and impact of ARA. implement new strategies for integrating ARA into clinical encounters. formulate a multidisciplinary approach. OBJECTIVES

3 DEFINITIONS: WHY LANGUAGE MATTERS Reframing the conversation from Teen Dating Violence to Adolescent Relationship Abuse: Are you hanging out with anyone? Are you seeing anyone right now?

4 WHAT IS ADOLESCENT RELATIONSHIP ABUSE? ARA refers to an escalating pattern of repeated acts that physically, sexually, or emotionally abuse a member of a heterosexual or homosexual couple in in the context of a dating or similarly defined relationship which one or both partners is a minor. Range of controlling behaviors: monitoring cell phone usage, telling a partner what s/he can wear, controlling where s/he goes, and manipulating contraceptive use. The defining characteristic is a repetitive pattern of behaviors aiming to maintain power and control in a relationship.

5 One in five teen girls have electronically sent or posted nude/semi- nude photos or videos of themselves (12% of these girls say they felt pressured to do so) ARA AND TECHNOLOGY One in four teens in a relationship report being called names, harassed, or put down by their partner via cell phone/texting

6 HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF ARA

7 1 in 5 (20%) U.S. teen girls report ever experiencing physical and/or sexual violence in an intimate relationship. (CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. February ;Silverman et al, 2001)

8 ARA AND TEEN PREGNANCY Adolescent girls in physically abusive relationships were 3.5 times more likely to become pregnant than non-abused girls Pregnant adolescents 2- 3 times more likely to have experienced violence during and after pregnancy than older pregnant women (Roberts et al, 2005)

9 Partner violence among teen girls linked with: Early sexual intercourse (before age 15) Condom inconsistent use or non-use at last sex Multiple partnering (3+) in past 3 months Use alcohol or drugs before sex Have a past or current sexually transmitted infection Have a partner with known HIV risk factors ARA AND SEXUAL RISK FOR ADOLESCENTS (Silverman,et al. 2004; Kim-Goodwin et al, 2009; Wu et al, 2003)

10 Over 50% of youth reporting both physical and sexual violence in their relationship also reported attempting suicide. (Bossarte et al, 2008; Ackard & Neumark-Sztainer, 2002) ARA AND MENTAL HEALTH

11 Young women who have experienced partner abuse have higher rates of: Depression and anxiety Disordered eating Substance abuse more likely to report sadness, hopelessness or suicide ideation ARA AND MENTAL HEALTH (Kim-Godwin YS, et al 2009;Howard DE, et al,2008;Brossard RM, et al, 2008)

12 WHAT HAPPENS AT SCHOOL FOR THESE TEENS? Victims and perpetrators are more likely to carry weapons as well as engage in physical fighting and other high risk behaviors. Physical and sexual victimization is associated with an increased risk for school dropout, lower grades, and less connectedness to school. A third (32%) of female homicides among adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 are committed by an intimate partner. (Champion et al, 2008; Goldstein et al, 2009; Banyard & Cross, 2008; Coyne-Beasley et al, 2003)

13 NEW STRATEGIES

14 Project Connect HEART (Healthcare Education, Assessment & Response Tool for Teen Relationships) SHARP (School Health Center Healthy Adolescent Relationship Program) ARA PROJECTS INVOLVING HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS

15 National Initiative to improve collaboration between public health and domestic violence programs Worked in 8 states and 2 tribes in phase one and now working in 6 new states and 5 new tribes beginning 2013 Trained over 6,000 providers from over 150 clinical sites Changed health policy at the state level Integrated violence prevention into teen pregnancy prevention New statewide requirements for all school based health settings to screen and respond to ARA PROJECT CONNECT

16 Model Provider training Provider Assessment at every encounter Distribute Safety Card at every encounter Peer activities SHARP

17 Every adolescent clinical encounter is an opportunity to: convey prevention education messages about healthy relationships share with youth that your clinical space is safe and confidential identify and support youth who may be experiencing controlling and abusive behaviors in their relationships PROMOTING HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS

18 Distinguish between healthy and unhealthy relationship behavior Encourage safe and respectful relationships How to help a friend in an unhealthy relationship Educate sexually active adolescents about sexual coercion and the importance of consent Create an environment where youth will see the clinic or providers office as a safe place to seek related advice and assistance for relationship abuse GOALS FOR UNIVERSAL EDUCATION ABOUT HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS

19 First things first: Always review the limits of confidentiality-- even if you are not asking DIRECT questions about abuse-- in case there is disclosure and you need to report GETTING STARTED For more information, please refer to Futures Mandatory Reporting: Using a Trauma-informed Approach module

20 The way you start the conversation sets the tone: PROVIDING UNIVERSAL EDUCATION ON HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS I talk about this with all my patients because its so common…

21 MAKING HEALTHY RELATIONSHIP CONVERSATIONS SIMPLE

22 Weve started talking to all the teens in our clinic about what they deserve in relationships and giving them this card, it talks about health and unhealthy relationships.

23 Everyone deserves to be treated with respect- but defining what that looks like can be confusing. This panel of the card breaks it down a little more...

24 The following video clip demonstrates providing universal education on healthy relationships during an adolescent health visit. Video: Olivia

25 OLIVIA DEBRIEF Universal education and focusing on friends opens the door for direct assessment. So Olivia is anything like this happening to you?

26 Talk about healthy relationships with girls and boys: We find a lot of the teen that come to the clinic have situations like this come up with people they are seeing...

27 Adolescents report disclosing abusive relationship experiences to friends far more than to health professionals, suggesting that education within clinic settings about how to tell a friend may resonate with youth.

28 "I learned long ago not to make assumptions about our patients and that by screening every patient for domestic violence and reproductive coercion, you uncover unlikely stories of abuse. The study helped reinforce the practice of normalizing my screening questions. -Nurse Practitioner at New Generation Health Center, San Francisco VOICES FROM THE FIELD

29 Each team led by an adult ally Each team received training from Kat Gutierrez, CSHC Peers organized one school wide project Peers organized a bathroom campaign SHARP PEER ACTIVITIES

30 Lunchtime session on Valentines Day called "Hearts or Bombs" during which students describe healthy and unhealthy relationship qualities. Theater production on healthy relationships. Production is an interactive piece that will engage audience members in acting out relationship trauma that they or a loved one might have experienced. EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES

31

32 Mock dating game with three contestants, each representing healthy, unhealthy, and abusive relationship tendencies. Two cupids passing out wallet cards with candy. EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES

33 EVALUATION DATA

34 Tech abuse victimization in the past 3 months decreased in both sites: 65% to 22% (school health center) and from 26% to 7% (teen/young adult health center) In the teen/young adult health center site, past 3 month reproductive coercion decreased from 13% to 2%. -no significant difference in the school health center site (baseline reproductive coercion was low). HEART EVALUATION RESULTS

35 Clients were overwhelmingly positive about receiving this information from their provider: 70% of the time clients reported talking to their provider about healthy and unhealthy relationships during the clinical encounter 57% reported receiving this information helped them know how to help someone in an unhealthy relationship 77% agree that it is helpful for health care providers to talk about healthy and unhealthy relationships 84% state they would bring a friend to the health center if they were experiencing an unhealthy relationship HEART EVALUATION RESULTS: CLIENT EXIT SURVEYS

36 Since being trained: 26% reported an increased number of disclosures about ARA by youth 26% reported having more contact with domestic violence and sexual assault advocates since the training 66% reported increased counseling about harm reduction strategies with their clients (strategies to stay safer, reduce risk for unintended pregnancy) HEART EVALUATION RESULTS: PROVIDERS

37 Prevalence of ARA Approximately 27% (n=197) of students experienced ARA 63% experienced technology-based abuse 10% of females experienced reproductive coercion. SHARP PRELIMINARY RESULTS

38 A majority of students (87%, n=688) identified their SBHC as an ARA resource at baseline. Post-visit, intervention SBHC students were significantly more likely to have discussed ARA with their provider compared to control students. Among those who had experienced ARA, intervention SBHC students were more likely to disclose this history of abuse to a provider compared to controls, but this did not persist in adjusted analysis. SHARP PRELIMINARY RESULTS

39 Develop protocol Develop a collaborative model of care Have a private place to talk with patients Use safety care intervention and response Resources and displaying educational materials BUILDING A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY TEAM

40 RESOURCES For more information about how to do direct assessment for adolescent relationship abuse and pregnancy prevention for adolescents, please see Futures eLearning: Reproductive Coercion Module

41 Sandi Goldstein, Director (510) Lisa James, Director of Health Futures Without Violence (415) CONTACT INFORMATION


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