St. Michael’s RC School Does the UK need alternative energy supplies? energy sources (UK 2003)
St. Michael’s RC School Renewable energy sources These will not run out because they can be regenerated. Examples are wind power, solar power, tidal power and biomass. Charcoal - a fuel produced from wood (biomass) Only 1% of the UK’s energy comes from these sources. Can you think of a reason why?
St. Michael’s RC School Solar energy Solar panels Photovoltaic cells are made of the abundant element silicon. Photovoltaic cells are silent. Photovoltaic cells have low maintenance costs. Why isn’t solar energy popular in the UK?
St. Michael’s RC School Wind energy - the disadvantages Some people also consider the wind farms as visually unattractive and noisy. What are the advantages of wind energy? Rotor blades can be damaged in strong and turbulent winds. It takes 30 wind farms to generate the same amount of electricity as one coal-fired power station. The setting up costs for wind farms are therefore more expensive than for traditional, fossil fuel power stations. In theory, the UK could generate all its electricity from wind farms covering approximately 1% of the land. But the problems are wind turbine design and cost.
St. Michael’s RC School Advantages of wind energy cooling towers Wind power can be developed on a small scale. Wind farms create jobs in rural areas. Wind farms can be constructed in a few months (thermal power stations take between 6–10 years to complete). Wind fuel is free.
St. Michael’s RC School Where should the new wind turbines be located? 1 2 3 It has been decided to locate new wind turbines in this area. Choose from the three sites indicated and justify your answer. wind direction town
St. Michael’s RC School Hydroelectric power Hydroelectric electricity is the most popular type of renewable energy. In some countries, such as Brazil, it represents most of the energy produced. Hydroelectric energy is produced from fast flowing water, such as at a waterfall or by an artificial dam. Dam at Donzere, France
St. Michael’s RC School Tucurui Dam, Brazil – cost $5 billion Tucurui Dam was built between 1976 and 1984, on the Lower Tocantins River in the state of Para, approximately 300km south of Belem. The reservoir created upstream of the dam is over 2000km². Tucurui will produce more than 4000 MW of electricity.
St. Michael’s RC School Tucurui Dam Amazonian Indian village HEP plant Road flooded an area 5 times the size of the Isle of Wight Before Tucurui Dam After Tucurui Dam Describe the dam’s impact on the landscape River Tocantins
St. Michael’s RC School Hydroelectric power – impact of building dams tourists may be attracted to the area silt is trapped behind the dam and is not transported downstream where it is needed for farmers and fishermen may decrease flooding downstream the water behind the dam is stagnant and algae builds up building dams floods large areas dams control the flow of water These are some of the advantages and disadvantages of building a dam.
St. Michael’s RC School Energy is generated by the tidal rise and fall. The tides come in and pass through holes in a dam wall. The water is then trapped in a river estuary. Then the tide ebbs and passes back through the barrage, driving the turbines and producing electricity. Tidal energy is generated at La Rance in western France. A suitable site in Britain would be the River Severn. This barrage would cost between £3 billion and £9 billion and be able to generate between 5% and 10% of Britain’s total electricity demand. Tidal energy
St. Michael’s RC School Wave energy The island of Islay, off the west coast of Scotland has had a Limpet (land-installed marine-powered energy transformer) constructed, which should provide a reliable electricity supply for the 3,400 residents. A 25-metre notch has been cut into Islay’s south west facing cliffs at Portnahaven into which a wave chamber has been inserted. The waves rise and fall in this wave chamber compressing the air and so driving the turbines which power the generators. Why has the wave chamber been placed on the south west of the island? incoming waveslow tide high tide turbo generator
St. Michael’s RC School Geothermal energy Hot waterCold Water geothermal plant fractured rock Geothermal energy is obtained from heated rocks and molten magma under the Earth’s surface.
St. Michael’s RC School Geothermal energy is generated extensively in tectonic areas, such as Iceland and New Zealand. Why is this the case? Plate Map
St. Michael’s RC School often located in exposed areas such as mountainous regions Wave Solar Geothermal Wind HEP Tidal Match the statement with the energy source water stored in dams is released through turbines to generate electricity located on the coast with a chamber facing the prevailing wind mirrors concentrate the sun’s rays onto water-filled black pipes powered by a man-made barrage, usually found across an estuary heat produced by rocks under the Earth’s surface water stored in dams is released through turbines to generate electricity located on the coast with a chamber facing the prevailing wind mirrors concentrate the sun’s rays onto water-filled black pipes powered by a man-made barrage, usually found across an estuary often located in exposed areas such as mountainous regions