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PRI and RF Prediction Enabling Technology By Ken McRitchie, Rémi Gauvin & Scott McDonald Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Visit us at MC Countermeasures.

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Presentation on theme: "PRI and RF Prediction Enabling Technology By Ken McRitchie, Rémi Gauvin & Scott McDonald Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Visit us at MC Countermeasures."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRI and RF Prediction Enabling Technology By Ken McRitchie, Rémi Gauvin & Scott McDonald Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com MC Countermeasures Inc.

2 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 2Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Overview Introduction Electronic Attack Problem: Pulse to Pulse Agility What is PRI & RF Prediction? Prediction in a Corrupt or Multi- Emitter Environment Prediction Applications Summary

3 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 3Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Good Radar Design PRI changes help eliminate blind speeds and ambiguous ranges in MPRF and MTI radar modes RF changes help de-correlate and hence reduce sea clutter Both are effective ECCM/EPM

4 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 4Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com The EA Task Provide effective jamming in a typical radar environment: – Many emitters: interleaved pulse trains – Radar TX misfire: missing pulses – Scanning modes: short illumination time – PRI and/or RF agility: stagger, sliding, sine, jitter –RF jitter may be sinusoidal, but generally random, non-coherent radars

5 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 5Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Noise - SOJ Bandwidth tailored to radars RF agility bandwidth: 10s to 100s MHz Complete range masking so PRI agility not a factor Need lots of power, dedicated aircraft

6 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 6Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Deception - SPJ Frequency Memory Loop –Limited delay due to noise build-up after few times around loop, generally 10 us max –Restricted to down-range false targets only –Negated by leading edge track, guard gates

7 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 7Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Deception - DRFM DRFM –Indefinite delay, enables full PRI delay so up- range false targets are possible –Initially developed for pulsed Doppler radar –Ok for high PRF constant PRI modes –Rendered ineffective by pulse-pulse agility common in low or medium PRF modes

8 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 8Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Problem - Agility PRI Agility: –Limits deception based system to down range capability RF Agility: –Limits deception based system to down range capability –Noise jamming requires high power / wide bandwidth

9 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 9Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Staggered PRI

10 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 10Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Without Prediction Only Down-Range FT Are Possible Staggered PRI PRI AFT PRI BFT PRI CFT False Target DelayRange 1 False Target Delay Range 2 Range 3

11 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 11Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com PRI Prediction To take full advantage of DRFM, TOA of next pulse is required Even with prediction, need to adjust DRFM delay for each pulse Hence, need to closely integrate techniques generator with Predictor

12 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 12Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Up-Range Targets Variable Delay Creates Up-Range FT

13 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 13Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Benefits of PRI Prediction Compensate for jammer throughput delay Fade + Fast re-acquisition on scanning radars Improve low isolation performance Improved ECM –RGPI –CRBM –RGPI/O >>PRI

14 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 14Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Achieving PRI Prediction Multiple Parallel Processes

15 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 15Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com RF Agile Sources From: Radar Technology Encyclopedia, D.K. Barton & S.A. Leonov editors, 1997

16 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 16Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Sine RF, Staggered PRI

17 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 17Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Sine RF, Staggered PRI

18 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 18Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com RF Agility With RF prediction in addition to PRI prediction: –Fast tuning VCO can be used to generate consistent false targets –Switch frequency at halfway point in PRI

19 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 19Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Why RF Prediction? Because DRFM generates false targets by delaying a copy of the previous radar pulse, any RF agility is fatal Even with prediction, up-range false targets are at the wrong frequency Wide Bandwidth / High Power needed for noise jamming

20 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 20Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Benefits of RF Prediction Smarter noise jamming Generate up-range false targets that integrate non-coherently Greatly reduce power required for effective ECM, possibly by 10-20 dB Provide training for RF agile radar modes

21 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 21Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Achieving RF Prediction Isolate agile emitter first Stagger RF: –Track PRI & RF independently in parallel Sine RF: –RF requires PRI prediction input

22 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 22Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com System Integration

23 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 23Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Test Setup Can Generate Complex Video Environment –6 independent emitters Predictor Control Predictor Performance Assessment Pre-trial Parameter Adjustment & Optimization

24 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 24Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Video Generation Features 6 Emitters, each with : –Illumination and scan control –Multiple bursts of complex staggered or sine PRI –RF and PW Control

25 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 25Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com RF Prediction Accuracy Preliminary results for sine RF prediction Main sources of error are: –DFD measurement error –Prediction error –VCO tuning error Prediction error almost totally dependent on DFD error: 90% of predictions within DFD error limits

26 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 26Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Sine RF Prediction PRI: 2.333 ms RF mean: 9100 MHz RF dev: 200 MHz RF period: 100 ms DFD res: 1 MHz DFD error: 0 99% < 1MHz

27 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 27Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Sine RF Prediction PRI: 2.333 ms RF mean: 9100 MHz RF dev: 200 MHz RF period: 100 ms DFD res: 1 MHz DFD error: 1.5 MHz 97% < 3MHz

28 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 28Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Sine RF Prediction PRI: 2.333 ms RF mean: 9100 MHz RF dev: 200 MHz RF period: 100 ms DFD res: 1 MHz DFD error: 3 MHz 91% < 5MHz

29 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 29Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com RF Agility Demonstration Sinusoidal RF Agile Emitter with: Mean RF of 9.1 GHz Deviation of 150 MHz Cycle Time of 1.667 ms Mean PRI of 400 us Lock time = 46 PRI

30 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 30Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Lock Time = 18.4 ms

31 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 31Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com RF Agility Demonstration Sinusoidal RF Agile Emitter with: Mean RF of 9.1 GHz Deviation of 200 MHz Cycle Time of 50 ms Mean PRI of 2.333 ms Input Error Versus Output Error

32 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 32Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com ± 10 MHz DFD (Input) ErrorVCO Tuning (Output) Error Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com

33 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 33Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com ± 10 MHz DFD (Input) ErrorVCO Tuning (Output) Error Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com

34 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 34Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com ± 10 MHz DFD (Input) ErrorVCO Tuning (Output) Error Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com

35 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 35Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com ± 10 MHz DFD (Input) ErrorVCO Tuning (Output) Error Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com

36 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 36Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com ± 10 MHz DFD (Input) ErrorVCO Tuning (Output) Error Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com

37 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 37Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com RF Agility Demonstration Sinusoidal RF Agile Emitter with: Mean RF of 9.1 GHz Deviation of 200 MHz Cycle Time of 50 ms Mean PRI of 2.333 ms Lock Versus Output Error

38 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 38Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Lock Acq / LockVCO Tuning (Output) Error Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com

39 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 39Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Lock Acq / LockVCO Tuning (Output) Error Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com

40 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 40Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Lock Acq / LockVCO Tuning (Output) Error Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com

41 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 41Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Lock Acq / LockVCO Tuning (Output) Error Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com

42 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 42Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Lock Acq / LockVCO Tuning (Output) Error Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com

43 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 43Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Implementation Challenges Multi-Signal Environment Dropped Pulses –By the Radar or Receiver System Limitations –Non-Simultaneous Transmit / Receive

44 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 44Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Example Signal Environment

45 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 45Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Example Signal Environment (2)

46 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 46Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Prediction Challenge Accounting for Dropped and Interfering Pulses –Interference can be removed using: RF, AOA, PW or Expected Time of Arrival –Missing Pulses can be Added using: Expected Time of Arrival Filtering by Expected TOA Makes Sense

47 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 47Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Pulse Train De-interleaving Multiple parallel PRI prediction channels permit real time de-interleaving Signals present on their own at least part of the time for pattern acquisition Multiple scanning emitters, even with 1 or 2 non- scanning emitters Can select single emitter to jam based on PRI, PW and pattern length Or timeshare, first come first served

48 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 48Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com TDD Time Domain De-interleaving

49 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 49Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com TDD Results

50 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 50Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com TDD Results

51 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 51Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Effects of Dropped Pulses

52 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 52Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Effects of Dropped Pulses

53 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 53Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Application: System Control Controlling a Receiver / Transmitter using the Look-Through Method –Non coverpulse technique –Cover Pulse Technique

54 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 54Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Application: Timesharing Use a single DRFM to jam multiple (scanning) radars simultaneously Encompasses both: –Real-time pulse train de-interleaving –Real-time control of DRFM Read and Write Algorithm calculates optimal allocation based on signal present, predictor accuracy, first come first served, scan priority

55 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 55Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Timeshare Application Weapon Systems that use separate Acquisition and Track radars –Acq can provide good set-on to Tracker

56 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 56Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Timeshare Track & Acq

57 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 57Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Application: Timeshare

58 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 58Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Application: Fade + Re-Acq

59 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 59Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Application: Head to Tail

60 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 60Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Application: CRBM

61 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 61Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Application: RGPI >> PRI

62 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 62Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Application: ESM / RWR A Multi-Channel Predictor used to de- interleave the Received Video could greatly speed up the identification of threats in order to begin jamming sooner Predictor could act as a real-time filter for known emitters and enable the ESM / RWR system to process the unknown faster

63 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 63Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com PRED-5 Features Small 3 x 6 PMC format Pod or lab use 4 or more parallel channels – multi-threat capability Adaptive Acquisition Constant, dwell shift, sliding, stagger (> 192 pos), embedded sine Add or improve ECMs RF prediction can be used to control VCO

64 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 64Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com PRED-5 Features Time domain or RF de-interleaving, timeshare & controller Embedded user memory Available soon as chip set: Stratix II FPGA plus flash memory 33 mm x 33 mm ChipPMC Card

65 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 65Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Prediction:Summary (1) No a-priori radar information is required –Real-time learning Easily added to a system –Variety of form factors Solves systems issues Agile threats Scanning radars Missing Pulses Antenna isolation DRFM contamination Extra pulses

66 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 66Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Summary (2) Applications Include: –Real-time de-interleaving –Rx/Tx switching (look-through) –Advanced ECM functions Up-range false targets CRBM CRV –ECM Timesharing among multiple emitters –ESM/RWR pre-filter

67 AOC Virginia Beach 2005 67Visit us at http://www.mc-cm.com Acknowledgement The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of the other members of the MC Countermeasures team including: Dan Grise Colin Jackson

68 Questions For further information, please feel free to contact us at: MC Countermeasures Inc. http://www.mc-cm.com 260 Hearst Way, Suite 207 Kanata, Ontario, K2L 3H1 Canada remi@mc-cm.com Tel: +1 (613) 592-0818 scott@mc-cm.com Fax: +1 (613) 592-2818 ken@mc-cm.com


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