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© 2011 IBM Corporation 1 IBM Internal Use Only HuyLy@us.ibm.com 763.228.6463 Freakish Database Performance With Flash Storage
© 2011 IBM Corporation 2 IBM Internal Use Only Agenda Share some experience with using solid state/ flash storage for database workloads: OLTP (2TB) Warehouse (76TB) Which workload characteristics can best leverage flash storage? What are some best practices
© 2011 IBM Corporation 3 IBM Internal Use Only OLTP Workload Initial profile A brokerage house package Batch cycle comprised of five Java programs (only one can be parallelized) 1.5M transactions in 8 hours after extensive application and SQL tuning 1.68TB uncompressed Online backup time (backup, then gzip) in 36 hours The Challenge Goal: 1.5 M trans in 5.5 hours Stretch goal: 1.5M trans in 2 hours Improve backup time What is possible if CPU, memory, storage, and network are not constrained?
© 2011 IBM Corporation 4 IBM Internal Use Only The Setup No holds barred 2 x 64 cores, 3.86 GHz, 1TB RAM 86TB HDD, 256GB cache – 2 ms average response time 1TB SSD 10GbE Approaches Enabled compression No database tuning All-HDD Mixed – SSD (logs & temp), HDD (data & indexes) All-SSD
© 2011 IBM Corporation 5 IBM Internal Use Only Results Mixed SSD (logs & temp) & HDD (data, indexes)14% All – SSD26% Disk Utilization< 1% busy Average IOPS20 Throughput450KB/s Application Engines30 Uncompressed offline backup30 – 40 min Compressed online/offline backup (SSD to HDD)18 min Accept all default database settings out of the box STMM Auto runstats Auto online table reorg
© 2011 IBM Corporation 6 IBM Internal Use Only Application Engines Performance Most improvements resulted from more CPUs for the application CPU intensive Verbose application logging Application logs generated more IOs than database! More application engines generating transactions to reduce batch elapsed time Low database IO profile
© 2011 IBM Corporation 7 IBM Internal Use Only Final Results Results Goal: 1.5M trans in 5.5 hoursY Stretch goal: 1.5M trans in 2 hoursY Improve backup time: 18 minutes v. 36 hoursY Best result: 1.5M trans in 1.1 hours! (All SSD)Y
© 2011 IBM Corporation 8 IBM Internal Use Only Warehouse Workload Initial profile Servers and storage running 100% all day long Maxed out at around 30 – 40 active users Half-stroked disks to get performance and throughput The Challenge Aging servers and storage Data center floor space, cooling, and power consumption constraints Same or better performance
© 2011 IBM Corporation 9 IBM Internal Use Only The Setup Approach Replacement will be very fast, very small, very simple
© 2011 IBM Corporation 10 IBM Internal Use Only Database IO Improvement for Warehouse Workload 76TB IBM SSD v. Old HDD Sub-millisecond IO response time Sustained Synchronous reads21.8x Synchronous writes13.6x Asynchronous reads17.6x Asynchronous writes18.34x Data pages per asynchronous request1.8x Note: Asynchronous IOs are ~18x faster, each asynchronous request is ~2x more effective due to 32K page size, that is a 36x improvement.
© 2011 IBM Corporation 11 IBM Internal Use Only Benchmark Queries Improvement for Warehouse Workload 76TB IBM SSD v. Old HDD Benchmark details Actual IO and CPU intensive queries captured from business users Runs weekly to monitor any performance degradation with respect to new and organic growth in the warehouse over time Noise queries (75) + benchmark queries (25) = 100 All SSDOld Noise queries completed85%32% BM queries completed 100% (first time ever) 64% (historically never reached 100) CPU utilization30%100%
© 2011 IBM Corporation 12 IBM Internal Use Only Benchmark Queries Speed Up Factor for Warehouse Workload (Plotted on Logarithmic Scale) 76TB IBM SSD v. Old HDD Speed up details Average: 2.21 (log) or 163.96x faster Median: 1.48 (log) or 29.96x faster (50% is at least ~30x faster) Low: 0.56 (log) or 3.59x faster High: 3.05 (log) or 1,113.56x faster Time is measured as elapsed time (prepare + execute + fetch)
© 2011 IBM Corporation 13 IBM Internal Use Only CPU Utilization About 30% busy … BTW … We are also using disk level encryption (SED)
© 2011 IBM Corporation 14 IBM Internal Use Only EXP30 Ultra SSD IO Specifications Each drive: SFF (1.8), 1/5 of 1U, 387GB IO drawer: 30 drives (6 x 5). Total raw capacity: 11.6TB (30 x 387GB). Cache: 3.1GB IOPS: 400K (100% read) / 280K (70/30 R/W) / 165K (100% write) Two POWER 740 servers connected to one IO drawer PCIe attached via GX++ adapter (8Gb/s) Configured as 5+p LUNs (130GB LUNs)
© 2011 IBM Corporation 15 IBM Internal Use Only Deployment Considerations IO adapter card (HBA) At 120K – 400K IOPS per IO drawer, and 32K IO size, it is possible to saturate the HBA Plan for adequate number of HBAs If using SAN then be sure the bandwidth to the storage server is consistent along the whole path, for example, 8Gb/s Balance IOs across HBAs and front end ports for even utilization Be cautious about mixing flash storage & HDD drives in one HBA Fewer, larger LUNs (500GB– 700GB) LUNs do take up available system memory and CPU cycles on the server Multiple logical volumes per LUN, no reason to stripe LV across LUNs Use large page size (32K), extent size, but ensure that the database bufferpool(s) are adequately sized to accept big reads Optimize data movement with less IOPS. It is not about driving up IOPS
© 2011 IBM Corporation 16 IBM Internal Use Only Candidate Application Considerations High IO profile Indexes, data Database logs and temp spaces can take advantage of cache write through already, may not be the best candidates Applications that can parallelize well to take advantage of higher IO throughput Before we can process more transactions per second the applications need to be able to generate more transactions per second For example, we needed to increase the number of application engines from 3 to 30 in order to generate 8x throughput in transaction rate Applications that spend more time fetching result sets across a network, rather than executing complex queries in the database, will likely see less improvement (slow consumers) client_idle_wait_time (ms) (time spent waiting for client/application to send its next request) If the database spends more time waiting for client/application to send work then improving database response time alone will not improve throughput. Increase application parallelism Look for network congestion issues call monreport.dbsummary(600), examine client_idle_wait_time
© 2011 IBM Corporation 17 IBM Internal Use Only Why Consider Flash Storage Greatly beneficial for high IO workloads Much smaller footprint, much more energy efficient Servers (11), IO drawers (7), power supply all fit in one rack! Achieve high performance, and throughput quickly without tuning Performance, reliability, price
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