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11 1 Chapter 11 Database Performance Tuning and Query Optimization Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management, Seventh Edition, Rob and Coronel.

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Presentation on theme: "11 1 Chapter 11 Database Performance Tuning and Query Optimization Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management, Seventh Edition, Rob and Coronel."— Presentation transcript:

1 11 1 Chapter 11 Database Performance Tuning and Query Optimization Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management, Seventh Edition, Rob and Coronel

2 11 2 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel In this chapter, you will learn: Basic database performance-tuning concepts How a DBMS processes SQL queries About the importance of indexes in query processing About the types of decisions the query optimizer has to make

3 11 3 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel In this chapter, you will learn (continued): Some common practices used to write efficient SQL code How to formulate queries and tune the DBMS for optimal performance

4 11 4 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Database Performance-Tuning Concepts Goal of database performance is to execute queries as fast as possible Database performance tuning –Set of activities and procedures designed to reduce response time of database system

5 11 5 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Database Performance-Tuning Concepts (continued)

6 11 6 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Database Performance-Tuning Concepts (continued) All factors must be checked to ensure that each one operates at its optimum level and has sufficient resources to minimize occurrence of bottlenecks Good database performance starts with good database design

7 11 7 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Performance Tuning: Client and Server Database performance-tuning activities can be divided into: –Client side Objective is to generate SQL query that returns correct answer in least amount of time, using minimum amount of resources at server end SQL performance tuning

8 11 8 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Performance Tuning: Client and Server (continued) Database performance-tuning activities can be divided into (continued): –Server side DBMS environment must be properly configured to respond to clients requests in fastest way possible, while making optimum use of existing resources DBMS performance tuning

9 11 9 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Architecture All data in database are stored in data files Data files –Automatically expand in predefined increments known as extends –Generally grouped in file groups of table spaces Table space or file group is logical grouping of several data files that store data with similar characteristics

10 11 10 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Architecture (continued)

11 11 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Architecture (continued) DBMS retrieve data from permanent storage and place it in RAM Data cache or buffer cache is shared, reserved memory area that stores most recently accessed data blocks in RAM SQL cache or procedure cache is shared, reserved memory area that stores most recently executed SQL statements or PL/SQL procedures, including triggers and functions

12 11 12 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Architecture (continued) An input/output request is low-level (read or write) data access operation to/from computer devices Working with data in data cache is many times faster than working with data in data files because DBMS doesnt have to wait for hard disk to retrieve data Majority of performance-tuning activities focus on minimizing number of I/O operations

13 11 13 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Architecture (continued) Listener User Scheduler Lock manager Optimizer

14 11 14 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Database Statistics Refers to number of measurements about database objects and available resources –Tables –Indexes –Number of processors used –Processor speed –Temporary space available

15 11 15 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Database Statistics (continued) Make critical decisions about improving query processing efficiency Can be gathered manually by DBA or automatically by DBMS

16 11 16 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Database Statistics (continued)

17 11 17 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Query Processing DBMS processes queries in three phases –Parsing –Execution –Fetching

18 11 18 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel SQL Parsing Phase Breaking down (parsing) query into smaller units and transforming original SQL query into slightly different version of original SQL code –Fully equivalent Optimized query results are always the same as original query –More efficient Optimized query will almost always execute faster than original query

19 11 19 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel SQL Parsing Phase (continued)

20 11 20 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel SQL Parsing Phase (continued) Query optimizer analyzes SQL query and finds most efficient way to access data Access plans are DBMS-specific and translate clients SQL query into series of complex I/O operations required to read the data from the physical data files and generate result set

21 11 21 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel SQL Parsing Phase (continued)

22 11 22 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel SQL Execution Phase All I/O operations indicated in access plan are executed

23 11 23 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel SQL Fetching Phase Rows of resulting query result set are returned to client DBMS may use temporary table space to store temporary data

24 11 24 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Indexes and Query Optimization Indexes –Crucial in speeding up data access –Facilitate searching, sorting, and using aggregate functions as well as join operations –Ordered set of values that contains index key and pointers More efficient to use index to access table than to scan all rows in table sequentially

25 11 25 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Indexes and Query Optimization (continued)

26 11 26 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Optimizer Choices Rule-based optimizer –Uses set of preset rules and points to determine best approach to execute query Cost-based optimizer –Uses sophisticated algorithms based on statistics about objects being accessed to determine best approach to execute query

27 11 27 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Optimizer Choices (continued)

28 11 28 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Optimizer Choices (continued)

29 11 29 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Using Hints to Affect Optimizer Choices

30 11 30 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel SQL Performance Tuning Evaluated from client perspective –Most current-generation relational DBMSs perform automatic query optimization at the server end –Most SQL performance optimization techniques are DBMS-specific and are rarely portable

31 11 31 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Index Selectivity Indexes are likely used when: –Indexed column appears by itself in search criteria of WHERE or HAVING clause –Indexed column appears by itself in GROUP BY or ORDER BY clause –MAX or MIN function is applied to indexed column –Data sparsity on indexed column is high Measure of how likely an index will be used

32 11 32 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Index Selectivity (continued) General guidelines for creating and using indexes: –Create indexes for each attribute in WHERE, HAVING, ORDER BY, or GROUP BY clause –Do not use in small tables or tables with low sparsity –Declare primary and foreign keys so optimizer can use indexes in join operations –Declare indexes in join columns other than PK/FK

33 11 33 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Conditional Expressions Normally expressed within WHERE or HAVING clauses of SQL statement Restricts output of query to only rows matching conditional criteria

34 11 34 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Conditional Expressions (continued)

35 11 35 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Query Formulation Identify what columns and computations are required Identify source tables Determine how to join tables Determine what selection criteria is needed Determine in what order to display output

36 11 36 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning Includes global tasks such as managing DBMS processes in primary memory and structures in physical storage Includes applying several practices examined in previous section

37 11 37 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued) DBMS performance tuning at server end focuses on setting parameters used for: –Data cache –SQL cache –Sort cache –Optimizer mode

38 11 38 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued) Some general recommendations for creation of databases: –Use RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) to provide balance between performance and fault tolerance –Minimize disk contention –Put high-usage tables in their own table spaces

39 11 39 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued) Some general recommendations for creation of databases (continued): –Assign separate data files in separate storage volumes for indexes, system, and high-usage tables –Partition tables based on usage –Use denormalized tables where appropriate –Store computed and aggregate attributes in tables

40 11 40 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued)

41 11 41 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued)

42 11 42 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued)

43 11 43 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued)

44 11 44 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued)

45 11 45 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued)

46 11 46 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued)

47 11 47 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued)

48 11 48 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued)

49 11 49 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel DBMS Performance Tuning (continued)

50 11 50 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Summary Database performance tuning –Refers to set of activities and procedures designed to ensure that end-user query is processed by DBMS in minimum amount of time SQL performance tuning –Refers to activities on client side designed to generate SQL code that returns correct answer in least amount of time, using minimum amount of resources at server end

51 11 51 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Summary (continued) DBMS performance tuning refers to activities on server side oriented to ensure that DBMS is properly configured to respond to clients requests in fastest way possible while making optimum use of existing resources DBMS architecture is represented by many processes and structures (in memory and in permanent storage) used to manage a database

52 11 52 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Summary (continued) Database statistics refers to a number of measurements gathered by the DBMS that describe snapshot of database objects characteristics DBMS processes queries in three phases: Parsing, Execution and Fetching Indexes are crucial in process that speeds up data access

53 11 53 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Summary (continued) During query optimization, DBMS must choose what indexes to use, how to perform join operations, what table to use first, and so on Hints are used to change optimizer mode for current SQL statement SQL performance tuning deals with writing queries that make good use of statistics

54 11 54 Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7 th Edition, Rob & Coronel Summary (continued) Query formulation deals with how to translate business questions into specific SQL code to generate required results DBMS performance tuning includes tasks such as managing DBMS processes in primary memory and structures in physical storage


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