Presentation on theme: "Cabinet and Countertop Installation"— Presentation transcript:
1Cabinet and Countertop Installation Unit 60Cabinet and Countertop InstallationConstructing Cabinets • Installing Kitchen Cabinets • Countertops
2Most cabinets and countertops used in residential construction are located in the kitchen. Cabinets and countertops are usually constructed in a cabinet shop or factory, delivered to the job site, and installed by carpenters. In residential construction, most cabinets and countertops are located in the kitchen and bathroom. See Figure 60-1.
3Rabbet joints make an attractive and sturdy fit for cabinet corners. Although carpenters on the job site are typically required only to install cabinets, they should have a basic knowledge of cabinet construction. Cabinet parts are fastened together with screws or nails. Nails are usually spaced 6″ OC, and are set below the surface. Surface holes are filled with wood putty. Glue is used at all joints to provide additional rigidity to the cabinet. Clamps are placed on cabinets as the glue sets to ensure a sound joint. A better-quality cabinet is rabbeted along the top, bottom, and sides to accept the back piece and strengthen joints. See Figure 60‑2.
4Butt joints may be used when constructing cabinets Butt joints may be used when constructing cabinets. A reinforcing block should be installed in the corner if the material being used for the cabinet is less than 3/4″.However, butt joints may also be used. If panels are less than 3/4″ thick, a reinforcing block should be used with the butt joint. See Figure 60-3.
5Dado joints provide good support for cabinet shelves. Fixed shelves are dadoed into the sides. See Figure 60‑4.
6On a typical base cabinet, a face frame attaches to the front of the cabinet and a web frame attaches to the top.Cabinets may have a face frame that attaches to the front of the cabinet and a web frame that attaches to the top. See Figure 60‑5.
7The rails and stiles of the face frame of a cabinet may be joined by mortise‑and‑tenon, dowel, or plate joints.The rails and stiles of the face frame are joined by mortise‑and‑tenon, dowel, or plate joints. See Figure 60‑6.
8Cabinet backs are best attached by rabbeting the cabinet sides Cabinet backs are best attached by rabbeting the cabinet sides. At left, the back is flush with the edge of the sides. At right, the rabbet is deeper and the side projects about 1/4″ past the back, making it possible to scribe the side against an uneven or out-of-plumb wall.Cabinet backs are best attached by rabbeting the back edge of the cabinet sides. See Figure 60‑7. A deeper rabbet makes it possible to scribe the side against an uneven or out‑of-plumb wall.
9Drawer sides are joined to the front or back with dovetail, lock-shouldered, or square-shouldered joints.There are many methods of drawer construction. Three common methods are dovetail, lock‑shouldered, and square‑shouldered. See Figure 60‑8.
10Drawer slides allow drawers to be easily opened and closed Drawer slides allow drawers to be easily opened and closed. The slides may be mounted on the side, on the bottom, or under the drawer.A variety of drawer slides are available. See Figure 60‑9. Drawer slides are installed prior to cabinet installation. Manufacturer instructions provided with the slides provide allowance dimensions for drawer openings and depth, and installation procedures.
11Detail drawings provide information for the layout and placement of kitchen cabinets. The kitchen cabinet detail drawing found in the prints of the three-bedroom house plan (refer to Unit 30) includes the widths and heights of the cabinets and the height at which wall cabinets are to be placed. See Figure Spaces for kitchen appliances, such as a refrigerator and dishwasher, are also indicated on the drawing.
12A T-brace supports a cabinet while it is fastened to the wall. Construct T-braces, which are slightly longer than the distance from the floor to the cabinet bottom. A T-brace supports the cabinets while they are being fastened to the wall. See Figure 60‑11. A cleat may be fastened to unfinished walls to support the cabinets.
13A T-brace prevents a cabinet from falling forward while it rests on the back T-brace. Place another T-brace along the cabinet front to prevent cabinets from tipping forward while they are being fastened to the wall. See Figure
14Screws driven through mounting rails and wall surfaces fasten cabinets to wall studs. Using shims where necessary, plumb and level each cabinet while it is being installed. Use wood screws long enough to penetrate into the studs. Better-quality cabinets have mounting rails, or hanging rails, at the top and bottom. See Figure 60‑13.
15Cabinets are fastened to each other with wood screws driven through the face frame stiles. C-clamps may be used to temporarily hold the stiles tightly together.Some carpenters may prefer to fasten a set of wall cabinets together on the floor and hang the set as one unit on the wall. Other carpenters install one cabinet at a time on the wall. Whichever system is used, wood screws are driven through the stiles at the face frames of the cabinets to fasten the cabinets to each other. Small bar clamps or C‑clamps are used to temporarily hold the frames tightly together. See Figure 60‑14.
16After wall cabinets have been installed, level and plumb base cabinets and fasten them to the wall. Level and plumb the base cabinets, and fasten them to the wall. See Figure
17The proper procedure must be employed when installing kitchen wall and base cabinets. The kitchen cabinet details for this installation are shown in FigureFigure 60‑16 shows a procedure for installing kitchen cabinets.
18Four types of doors are often used for base and wall cabinets Four types of doors are often used for base and wall cabinets. Various types of hardware are available for each type of door.The more commonly installed cabinet doors are flush, lipped, overlay, and sliding doors. See Figure 60‑17.
19Hinges connect cabinet doors to the cabinet frame or case. Various hinges and other hardware are available for each type of door. Figure shows several types of hinges used to hang cabinet doors. Hinge size depends on the weight and size of the doors. Hinges are available with a variety of finishes in plain and ornamental designs.
20Cabinet sliding doors at least 3/4″ thick may be rabbeted to slide in grooves at the cabinet top and bottom. Cabinet sliding doors thinner than 3/4″ thick are inserted in plastic tracks.Several types of sliding doors are used on cabinets. See Figure One type of sliding door is rabbeted along its upper and lower edges to fit into grooves at the top and bottom of the cabinet door opening. Thinner doors slide in a plastic track set into the bottom of the cabinet. The top groove is always made deeper to allow the door to be removed by lifting it up and pulling the bottom out.
21Drawer pulls and knobs are available in many designs and finishes. Pulls and knobs for cabinets are available in many designs and finishes. See Figure 60‑20.
22A block clamped to the back of the cabinet piece being drilled prevents the wood from splitting. Holes must be accurately laid out for the machine screws (or bolts) used to fasten the knobs and pulls. When several holes must be laid out on the same size doors or drawers, a jig should be constructed so the holes can be laid out accurately and efficiently. When attaching pulls or knobs to a cabinet door or drawer, drill from the exposed (outside) face to the unexposed (inside) face. To prevent the wood from splitting when using a drill bit, clamp a block to the back of the piece being drilled. See Figure 60‑21.
23Door catches hold a door in place when it is shut. A variety of door catches are available to hold doors in place when they are shut. Some of the more common door catches operate by means of friction, magnets, or nylon rollers. See Figure 60‑22.
24A freestanding cabinet can be secured by driving screws through the toeboards into 2 × 4s fastened to the floor.In some cases, built‑in units cannot be securely fastened to walls using the same techniques used for kitchen cabinets. Therefore, the units must be secured to the floor. One method of securing built-in units to the floor is to fasten 2 × 4s to the floor inside the unit and then drive screws through the toeboards into the 2 × 4s. See Figure 60‑23.
25The sink opening size is determined by the dimensions of the sink installed. After the opening is cut out, waterproof caulk is placed around the edge of the opening and the sink is set in place. The sink is then secured with hold‑down lugs on the underside of the countertop. See Figure 60‑24.
26Screws are driven through the web frame and into the bottom of the countertop. A base cabinet usually has a 1″ thick frame at the top of the cabinet or triangular pieces in the corners for attaching the countertop. Holes are drilled through the frame or corner pieces and into the countertop. Screws are inserted into the holes and driven into the underside of the countertop. Ensure the screws are short enough so as not to penetrate through the plastic laminate. See Figure
27A plastic laminate strip at the top edge of the backsplash may need to be scribed and attached to the top of the backsplash after the backsplash has been secured to the countertop.If the wall behind the backsplash is irregular, the laminate strip at the top edge of the backsplash may require scribing. For this reason, the strip is sometimes omitted. Figure shows a procedure for scribing and attaching this strip after the backsplash is secured to the countertop.
28Solid-surface materials provide outstanding durability and stain resistance. Solid-surface materials are available in 1/4″, 1/2″, and 3/4″ thicknesses and in a variety of colors, textures, and patterns. See Figure The 1/2″ and 3/4″ materials are used for countertops; 1/4″ material is used for edge strips and vertical applications. Countertop overhangs can extend past cabinet sides as much as 6″ for 1/2″ thick countertops and 8″ for thicker materials. Solid-surface countertops should be supported every 18″ for 1/2″ thicknesses.