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Presidential Advisors and Executive Agencies

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1 Presidential Advisors and Executive Agencies
Chapter 7, Section 4

2 Organization of the Federal Branch
Executive Office/White House Office People who work directly for the President (about 500) 10-12 of the President’s closest advisors Chief of Staff is most powerful advisor Office of Management and Budget Prepares the federal budget Oversees spending of hundreds of government agencies Director of OMB works closely with the President

3 Organization of the Federal Branch cont
National Security Council Helps the President direct US military and foreign policy Head is National Security Advisor Council of Economic Advisors Helps the President carry out the role of the economic leader Gives the President advice about complex economic matters (unemployment, inflation, taxes, etc.)

4 The Cabinet Cabinet Group of 15 presidential advisors that include the heads (Secretaries) of top level executive departments Secretaries advise the President on issues related to their department They meet whenever the President calls them together Dept of Homeland Security is the newest cabinet position (added in Nov 2002)

5 The Cabinet Dept of State
Plans and carries out the nation’s foreign policy Hillary Clinton Dept of Treasury Collects, borrows, spends, and prints money Timothy Giethner Dept of Defense Manages the military Robert Gates Dept of Justice Responsible for all aspects of law enforcement Eric Holder Dept of Interior Manages and protects the nations public lands and natural resources Ken Salazar

6 The Cabinet Dept of Agriculture
Assists farmers and consumers of products Tom Vilsack Dept of Commerce Supervises trade and promotes US business Gary Locke Dept of Labor Deals with working conditions and wages Hilda Solis Dept of Health & Human Services Works for the well being & health of Americans Kathleen Sebelius Dept of Housing & Urban Development Deals with special needs and problems of cities Shaun Donovan

7 The Cabinet Dept of Transportation
Manages nations highways, railroads, airlines, & sea traffic Ray LaHood Dept of Energy Directs overall energy plan Steven Chu Dept of Education Provides advice and funding for schools Arne Duncan Dept of Veteran’s Affairs Directs services for armed force veterans Eric Shenseki Dept of Homeland Security Oversees America’s defenses against terrorist attacks Janet Napolitano

8 Federal Bureaucracy Federal Bureaucracy- agencies and employees of the executive branch Carry out programs created by Congress Administer day to day functions of the Executive Branch Regulate various activities (police, banks, airlines, etc.)

9 Federal Bureaucracy cont
Independent Agencies- agencies of the Executive Branch that are NOT part of the cabinet Executive Agencies Independent and deal with certain specialized areas within government Ex. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

10 Federal Bureaucracy cont
Government Corporations Private businesses owned and operated by the government and not private people Ex. Postal Service (USPS) Regulatory Boards and Commissions Do no report to President, but instead to Congress Protect the public by making and enforce rules for industries or groups Ex. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

11 Government Workers Political Appointees- top leadership positions whom the President has chosen because they have proven executive ability (usually ends when the President leaves office) Civil Service Workers- permanent employment, based on competitive tests and merit They work within the Civil Service System

12 Spoils System Became very popular under Andrew Jackson
Government jobs went to people as a reward for their political support New President’s fired most workers and replaced them with their own Ex. Jackson put Martin Van Buren as Sec. of State and then VP because he was Jackson’s campaign manager and helped Jackson win the election Ex. Jackson made Roger Taney Supreme Court Chief Justice because he helped Jackson remove all of the money from the national bank because Jackson opposed it

13 Merit System Came about during Progressive Era with the Pendleton Act
Known as Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 Now jobs within the Civil Service System are awarded based on merit and examinations Sets standards for federal jobs

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