Presentation on theme: "Citizenship and its exclusions: the sexual contract Week"— Presentation transcript:
1Citizenship and its exclusions: the sexual contract Week 8 2013 - 2014 Money, Sex and PowerCitizenship and its exclusions: the sexual contractWeek 8
2Introduction Theme 2: sexual politics When we talk about the politics of sex or sexual politics what do we mean?We mean: power relationships between men and women in both formal groups or institutions in the public sphere as well as in the family which is consigned to the private sphere but which feminists have fought hard to show is not a private matter.
3Sexual politics includes Sexual politics refers to:politics of motherhood (including contraception and abortion)politics of child care.Politics impinges also uponmarriagedivorcewomen’s right to work outside the hometheir participation in the armed forcesPornographyadvertising
4Citizenship – formal and real In liberal democracies, suffrage is the hallmark of citizenship. But, the right to vote is only one part of citizenship and other basic political and legal rights also have to be part of the equation.If citizenship is to be meaningful in everyday life and of equal worth to all citizens, then each individual must be accepted as an equal participant in all areas of social and political life.Citizenship is not just problematic for women; not all men are full and equal members of their polities. Poor men; men from a variety of racial and ethnic groups are politically marginalised or discriminated the world over. But women face certain problems which don‘t affect men.
5Lecture outline 1. The social contract 2. Pateman and the sexual contract3. How can women/feminists challenge these exclusions?
6The social contractPateman – feminist critique of social contract theoryShe argues that the social contract incorporates a sexual contract which excludes women from the political arenaIdea of social contract is metaphor for understanding governmentHobbes (1651), Locke (1690), Rousseau(1762): government should be for and by the people
7HobbesTo avoid the brutishness of nature, people must agree contractually to set up society and to collectively and reciprocally give up all the rights they have against one another in the State of Nature.People must invest authority and power in one person or group of persons to enforce the initial contract. To escape from the State of Nature, they must both agree to live together under common laws, and create an enforcement mechanism for the social contract and the laws that constitute it.Since the sovereign (one person or group of people) is given the authority and power to punish citizens for any breaches of contract, then citizens will have reason to comply with society’s moral codes and justice in particular.
8Hobbes …Living under the authority of the sovereign can be difficult but in order for the social contract to be successful, the sovereign must have absolute authority because that’s better than living in a chaotic and nasty state of nature.No matter how much we object to how badly a Sovereign manages the affairs of state and regulates our own lives, we are never justified in resisting the Sovereign’s power because it is the only thing which stands between us and what we most want to avoid, the State of Nature.
9Locke and RousseauJohn Locke’s writings followed those of Hobbes 37 years later; he argued that if the government fails to keep its side of the contract, then the people have the right to resist.And Rousseau, writing 50 years after Locke argued that the free exchange of natural autonomy for protection and participation in socially regulated government could only be achieved through direct participatory democracy, thus introducing the idea of directly electing our representatives.
10Social ContractDifferent theories reflect desire to base legitimacy of government on choice of people governedEmerged from increasing importance in 17th and 18th centuries of contracts in commercial transactionsSocial environment of increasing individualism, secularisation, legalism
11Critics of social contract theory Governments based on coercion not consent (Hume, Bentham, Paine)Run for the benefit of those governing rather than those governedMost governments established by forceClaims of women to be recognised as citizens date back to the 18th century – they were not included in the social contract nor were they regarded as citizens
12Pateman: the sexual contract The social contract and liberal political theory generatesLiberal politics and the political freedom of (male) individualsThe sexual subordination of women to men in marriageSocial contract creates division between state and civil societyRequires sexual contract to maintain patriarchalism
13Separation of state and civil society Separation of political power from paternal power‘masculine right over women is declared non- political’ (Pateman, 1988:90)Original contract wasn’t only a social contract establishing freedom, was also a sexual contract perpetuating dominationEstablished men’s political right over women through conjugal right
14Public vs privateContract theorists created division between public sphere of civil freedom and private sphere of familyPateman argues that women not party to the original contract, they’re the subject of the contractCivil society referred to as the ‘private’ sphere in opposition to ‘public’ sphere of stateFamily, where women are subordinated, is forgotten
15PatemanExclusion of family and domestic arena not accidental – structural and systematicDenial of political significance of sexual and marital dominance suggests patriarchy of no relevance to public domainWhat social and political forces confined women to family and allowed men freedom of movement between private and public?
16Important concepts 1. Possessive individualism 2. Contract, equality and subordinationFree ‘men’ are individuals who own property rights in their own persons and can enter into contracts.Only men have rationality, independence and ownership of property in their own persons.Women naturally inferior to men and lack ability to engage in rational, independent thought.They’re not born free (as men are). Do not have ownership of property in their own person. Cannot be possessive individuals.
17Marriage contractIf women lack capacities to make contracts how can they enter the marriage contract?Male sex right based on coercionWomen do not have same civil status as menIn 19th century married women were the property of their husbandsHusband and wife one person and that person was the husbandToday rape in marriage outlawed in UK but not in some states in US
18Sexual difference‘the construction of sexual difference as political difference is central to civil society’ (Pateman, 1998:16).
19Contract, equality and subordination Contract can’t be understood as voluntary agreement between free and equal individualsE.g. employers and employees unequal in terms of economic constraints, women and men unequal in terms of family constraintsSocial contract creates political right in form of domination and subordination
20Political fictionContracts claim to regulate voluntary and free exchange of services between individuals who own property in their own persons and capabilitiesExchangers are free individuals‘We cannot contract out our services and capacities, while leaving ourselves free’ (Diana Coole, 1990)
21Challenging exclusions The personal is political - sloganSexual contract not confined to private sphereIt is about:Institutionalising heterosexualityDefining women as embodied sexual beingsHow men claim rights of access and control over women’s bodies
22Judith Squires Integrationist approach Transformational approach Displacement or politicisation approach
23Integrationist approach Aims to include women in current political formsWomen recognised as independent, autonomous, rational, possessive individualsGender neutral politicsWomen and femininity identified as problem
24Transformationist approach Change politics so it’s more woman friendlyReconfigure political arenaEmphasises gender difference, recognises it, takes account of differenceMen and masculinity are the problemPateman adopts this approach – also Nancy Fraser
25Displacement/ politicisation Attempts to deconstruct genderWay gender is constructed is the problemReorganise public/ private division in less patriarchal ways
26ConclusionsPolitical theory is highly gendered, political practice resistant to women’s inclusionWomen’s exclusion from politics and political theory is both gendered and political – requires explanationSexual contract provides basis for the social contract, excludes women from full political and sexual citizenship