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Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter 26: Contingency.

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Presentation on theme: "Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter 26: Contingency."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter 26: Contingency Contracting, Token Economy, and Group Contingencies

2 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Contingency Contract AKA: Behavioral Contract Definition: –A document that specifies a contingent relationship between The completion of a specific behavior and Access to a specified reinforcer

3 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Contingency Contract Components –Description of the task Who will perform the task/receive reward What is the task to be performed When the task must be completed How well the task must be completed

4 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Contingency Contract Components –Reward Who will judge task completion What is the reward When the reward will be delivered How much of the reward the person will receive

5 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Contingency Contract Components –Task Record A place to record progress –Sets occasion for regular review of the contract –Helps individual remain focused and gives feedback on performance

6 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Contingency Contract How do they work? –Typically a package that involves: Reinforcement Rules Response prompting –Can even be a self-contract

7 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Contingency Contract Steps to developing one –Hold a meeting to discuss how contracts work, goals, etc. –Identify tasks individuals can and already do perform –Identify potential contracting tasks –Identify potential rewards –Write the contract

8 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Contingency Contract Things to consider –Is the behavior already in the learners repertoire? –Does the behavior result in a permanent product? –What is the reading ability of the learner?

9 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Contingency Contract Evaluating Contracts –Focus on the objective measure of the target behavior

10 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Token Economy Definition –A behavior change system with three major components Specified list of behaviors to reinforce Tokens or points for emitting those behaviors A menu of back-up reinforcers for which the learner can exchange tokens/points (Effectiveness of tokens as reinforcers depends upon the power of the back-up reinforcers)

11 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Token Economy Designing a Token Economy –Select tokens –Identify target behaviors/rules –Select menu of back-up reinforcers –Establish ratio exchange –Specify when/how tokens will be dispensed and exchanged –Field test

12 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Token Economy Select Tokens –Washers, checkers, coupons, poker chips, tally marks, holes punched in cards… –Considerations Safe Control counterfeiting and bootlegging Durable Accessible Cheap Token should not be a desirable object

13 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Token Economy Identify Target Behaviors and Rules (see Ch. 3) –Select measurable/observable behaviors –Specify criteria for task completion –Start with a small number of behaviors –Ensure learners possess prerequisite skills –It is okay to individualize…rules dont have to be the same for everybody

14 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Token Economy Select a Menu of Back-up Reinforcers –Use naturally-occurring activities when possible –Privileges –Tangibles and edibles can be used as well –Follow ethical and legal rules

15 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Token Economy Establish a Ratio of Exchange –Initial ratio should be small –After that, adjust ratio for maintenance Procedure for Dispensation –May need storage containers Procedure for Exchange –Usually a store of some sort –Initially, have store open frequently –Over time, this can be more intermittent

16 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Token Economy Field Test the System –Tally tokens you would have given without actually giving them –Analyze data to determine if the system seems appropriate

17 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Token Economy Tips –Avoiding Battles Be matter of fact when learners dont earn tokens; dont nag Stay neutral; avoid confrontation about tokens –Response cost included? Most do include response cost Learners need to be aware of behaviors resulting in response cost/procedures Make the cost fit the severity of behavior Avoid having learners go in the hole

18 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Token Economy Implementation –Initial training Describe the procedure to learners Model the procedure for token delivery Model the procedure for token exchange –Ongoing training Booster sessions may be needed occasionally –Management issues Teach students how/where to store tokens (secure location) Discourage hoarding and encourage savings in some students Chronic rule breakers deserve special consideration

19 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Token Economy Implementation –Withdrawing the token economy Plan for maintenance and generalization Pair tokens with social approval Gradually increase number of responses required to earn tokens Gradually decrease length of time it is in place Gradually increase number of natural reinforcers and fade out use of contrived reinforcers Systematically increase price of more desirable items Fade physical evidence of token over time

20 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Token Economy Considerations –Can be intrusive and difficult to implement –Can be cumbersome –Can be so rewarding to interventionist that he/she doesnt want to remove it –Ensure it doesnt run counter to Federal mandates

21 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Group Contingencies Definition –A common consequence is contingent on the behavior of An individual member of the group, Part of the group, or Everyone in the group

22 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Group Contingencies Rationale –Can be a time saver –Can be more practical –Capitalizes on peer influence and peer monitoring (can also be potentially harmful)

23 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Group Contingencies Applications –Independent group contingency A contingency is presented to all members of a group, but reinforcement is only delivered to those individuals who meet the criterion outlined in the contingency Often combined with contracts or token systems

24 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Group Contingencies Applications –Dependent group contingency, AKA Hero Procedure The reinforcer for the group is dependent on the performance of an individual student or small group of students

25 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Group Contingencies Applications –Interdependent group contingency All of the individuals in a group must meet the criterion of the contingency before any member earns reinforcement –Total group meets criterion –Group average meets criterion –Good Behavior/Good Student games (competitions)

26 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Group Contingencies Implementation –Choose a powerful reinforcer –Determine the behavior to change and collateral behaviors that might be affected –Set appropriate performance criteria –Combine with other procedures –Select the most appropriate group contingency –Monitor individual and group performance


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