Presentation on theme: "The Organization of Matter"— Presentation transcript:
1The Organization of Matter Mixtures:a) Homogeneous (Solutions)b) HeterogeneousPure SubstancesElementsCompoundsAtomsNucleusElectronsProtonsNeutronsQuarksQuarks
2Basic Building Blocks of Matter… The most fundamental parts of matter are atoms and molecules, which make up elements and compoundsAtom – the smallest unit of an element that has all the properties of that elementElement – a pure substance made of only one kind of atomCompound – a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bondedMolecule – the smallest unit of an element or compound that retains all the properties of that element or compound
3Classification of Matter… Matter is classified according to how it is organizedMatter is complex and has different levels of organization:MixturesPure substances
4Mixtures…Most of the matter around us consists of mixtures of pure substancesMixture – consists of materials with variable compositionsTwo types of mixturesHomogeneousheterogeneous
5WATER IS THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT!! Homogeneous mixture…Homogeneous mixture – having visibly (to the naked eye) indistinguishable partsHas one phase presentIt also called a solutionThere are two parts of a solution1. the solute – the part that is dissolved2. the solvent – the part that does the dissolvingWATER IS THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT!!
6Alloy…A homogeneous mixture of metallic elements with one solid phase
7Alloy Problems… Conversion of Total Mass to Mass of a Component Manganese steel is very strong and finds use as railroad rails. It is composed of 86.0% iron, 13.0% manganese, 1.0% carbon. What is the mass of each of the three elements in a 254-kg sample of manganese steel?
8One more try…A sample of brass is composed of 72% copper and the remainder zinc. What mass of brass can be made from 25-kg of zinc?
9Bell Ringer… Describe a homeogeneous mixture Why is water known as the universal solvent?Give 2 types of a pure substanceWhat is an alloy?
10Examples of solutions… Air – a gaseous mixture of various gasesBrass – a solid mixture of various metalsIced Tea – a liquid mixture of various materials
11Heterogeneous mixtures… Heterogeneous mixture – having visibly distinguishable partsCan usually be separated into two or more homogeneous mixtures or pure substancesHas 2 or more phases present
12Examples of heterogeneous mixtures… Sand and waterIced tea and ice cubesPepperoni pizza
13Pure substances…Mixtures can be separated into pure substances by physical methodsPure substance – contains materials with a constant composition, such as compounds and elementsHave a definite composition and definite unchanging properties (both chemical and physical)
14Classify the following as a mixture or a pure substance Salt waterSmogWater10 karat goldSugarDiamondCoffeeChex mixChef Salad
15Phase DifferencesSolid – definite volume and shape; particles packed in fixed positions.Liquid – definite volume but indefinite shape; particles close together but not in fixed positionsGas – neither definite volume nor definite shape; particles are at great distances from one anotherPlasma – high temperature, ionized phase of matter as found on the sun.
16Properties of MatterExtensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present.VolumeMassEnergy Content (think Calories!)Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present.Melting pointBoiling pointDensity
17Separation of a Mixture The constituents of the mixture retain their identity and may be separated by physical means.
18Separation of a Mixture The components of dyes such as ink may be separated by paper chromatography.
20Separation of a Compound The Electrolysis of water Compounds must be separated by chemical means.With the application of electricity, water can be separated into its elementsReactant ProductsWater Hydrogen + Oxygen2 H2O H O2