Presentation on theme: "The Organization of Matter Matter Matter Mixtures: a) Homogeneous (Solutions) b) Heterogeneous Pure Substances Compounds Elements Elements Atoms NucleusElectrons."— Presentation transcript:
The Organization of Matter Matter Matter Mixtures: a) Homogeneous (Solutions) b) Heterogeneous Pure Substances Compounds Elements Elements Atoms NucleusElectrons ProtonsNeutrons Quarks Quarks
Basic Building Blocks of Matter… The most fundamental parts of matter are atoms and molecules, which make up elements and compounds Atom – the smallest unit of an element that has all the properties of that element Element – a pure substance made of only one kind of atom Compound – a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded Molecule – the smallest unit of an element or compound that retains all the properties of that element or compound
Classification of Matter… Matter is classified according to how it is organized Matter is complex and has different levels of organization: Mixtures Pure substances
Mixtures… Most of the matter around us consists of mixtures of pure substances Mixture – consists of materials with variable compositions Two types of mixtures Homogeneous heterogeneous
Homogeneous mixture… Homogeneous mixture – having visibly (to the naked eye) indistinguishable parts Has one phase present It also called a solution There are two parts of a solution 1. the solute – the part that is dissolved 2. the solvent – the part that does the dissolving WATER IS THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT!!
Alloy… A homogeneous mixture of metallic elements with one solid phase
Alloy Problems… Conversion of Total Mass to Mass of a Component Manganese steel is very strong and finds use as railroad rails. It is composed of 86.0% iron, 13.0% manganese, 1.0% carbon. What is the mass of each of the three elements in a 254-kg sample of manganese steel?
One more try… A sample of brass is composed of 72% copper and the remainder zinc. What mass of brass can be made from 25-kg of zinc?
Bell Ringer… 1.Describe a homeogeneous mixture 2.Why is water known as the universal solvent? 3.Give 2 types of a pure substance 4.What is an alloy?
Examples of solutions… Air – a gaseous mixture of various gases Brass – a solid mixture of various metals Iced Tea – a liquid mixture of various materials
Heterogeneous mixtures… Heterogeneous mixture – having visibly distinguishable parts Can usually be separated into two or more homogeneous mixtures or pure substances Has 2 or more phases present
Examples of heterogeneous mixtures… Sand and water Iced tea and ice cubes Pepperoni pizza
Pure substances… Mixtures can be separated into pure substances by physical methods Pure substance – contains materials with a constant composition, such as compounds and elements Have a definite composition and definite unchanging properties (both chemical and physical)
Classify the following as a mixture or a pure substance Salt water Smog Water 10 karat gold Sugar Diamond Coffee Chex mix Chef Salad
Phase Differences Solid Solid – definite volume and shape; particles packed in fixed positions. Liquid Liquid – definite volume but indefinite shape; particles close together but not in fixed positions Gas Gas – neither definite volume nor definite shape; particles are at great distances from one another Plasma Plasma – high temperature, ionized phase of matter as found on the sun.
Properties of Matter Volume Mass Energy Content (think Calories!) Extensive properties Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present. Intensive properties Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present. Melting point Boiling point Density
Separation of a Mixture The constituents of the mixture retain their identity and may be separated by physical means.
Separation of a Mixture The components of dyes such as ink may be separated by paper chromatography.
Separation of a Mixture by Distillation
Separation of a Compound The Electrolysis of water Water Hydrogen + Oxygen 2 H 2 O 2 H 2 + O 2 Reactant Products chemical Compounds must be separated by chemical means. With the application of electricity, water can be separated into its elements