2 Volume is the amount of three dimensional space an object occupies.Mass is a measure of the amount of matter.Matter is anything that has mass and takes upspace.
3 Basic Building Blocks of Matter An atom is the smallest unit of an element thatmaintains the chemical identity of that element.An element is a pure substance that cannot bebroken down into simpler, stable substances andis made of one type of atom.
4 A compound is a substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances.Each compound is made from the atoms of two ormore elements that are chemically bonded.Example: NaCl(Table Salt)Sugar
5 Properties and Changes in Matter Extensive properties depend on the amount ofmatter that is present.volumemassthe amount of energy in a substance
6 Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present.melting pointboiling pointdensityability to conduct electricityability to transfer energy as heat
7 Physical Properties and Changes A physical property is a characteristic that can beobserved or measured without changing theidentity of the substance.melting point and boiling point
8 A physical change is a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of thesubstance.grinding, cutting, melting, and boiling
9 A change of state is a physical change of a substance from one state to another.states of matter – solid state, liquid state, gasstate, plasma
10 In the solid state, matter has definite volume and definite shape. Particle MovementExamples
11 In the liquid state, matter has a definite volume but an indefinite shape.Particle MovementExamples
12 In the gas state, matter has neither definite volume nor definite shape.Particle MovementExamples
13 Plasma is a high-temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose most of their electrons,particles which make up atoms.Matter enters the plasma state when it is heated to such a high temperature that some of the atoms begin to break apart.The negatively chargedelectrons (yellow) arefreely streamingthrough the positivelycharged ions (blue).
14 Plasma Examples Plasma can be found in stars, fluorescent light bulbs, Cathode ray tubes, neon signs,and lightening.
15 Chemical Properties and Changes A chemical property relates to a substance’s abilityto undergo changes that transform it into differentsubstances.For example, the ability of charcoal (carbon) toburn in air is a chemical property.
16 A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances is called achemical change or chemical reaction.The fireworksdisplay at right isan example of areaction that releasesheat and light.
17 The reactants are the substances that react in a chemical change. The products are the substances that are formedby the chemical change.example: The following chemical equation shows that the reactant ammonium dichromate yields the products nitrogen, chromium(III) oxide, and water.ReactantProducts
18 Classification of Matter A mixture is a blend of two or more kinds ofmatter, each of which retains its own identityand properties.mixed togetherphysicallycan usually beseparatedWould the pizza be amixture?
19 Homogeneous mixtures are called solutions. uniform in composition (salt-water solution).Soft drinks in sealed bottles are examples of homogeneous mixtures.
20 Heterogeneous mixtures not uniform throughout (clay-water solution) Pizza is an example ofa heterogeneous mixture.
21 Pure Substances A pure substance has a fixed composition. Pure substances are either compounds or elements.CompoundElement
22 A pure substance differs from a mixture in the following ways:Every sample of a given pure substance hasexactly the same characteristic properties.exactly the same composition.Water is always 11.2% hydrogen and 88.8%oxygen by mass.
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