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After completing this topic you should be able to : State ores are naturally occurring compounds of metals. State the less reactive metals, including.

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Presentation on theme: "After completing this topic you should be able to : State ores are naturally occurring compounds of metals. State the less reactive metals, including."— Presentation transcript:

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2 After completing this topic you should be able to : State ores are naturally occurring compounds of metals. State the less reactive metals, including gold, silver and copper, are found uncombined in the Earth’s crust and the more reactive metals have to be extracted from their ores. Explain why some metals can be obtained from metal oxides by heat alone; some metal oxides need to be heated with other substances, e.g. carbon or carbon monoxide; other metals cannot be obtained by these methods. Describe how iron is produced from iron ore in the Blast Furnace. Give examples of the important uses of alloys, e.g. brass, solder, “stainless” steel. DescribeDescribe the extraction of metals from compounds as a reduction reaction. N5 DescribeDescribe the reaction taking place at the negative electrode during electrolysis for the extraction of metal as a reduction reaction. N5

3 The metals we use are obtained from rocks in the Earth’s crust. Most metals are too reactive to exist in a pure uncombined form in the Earth’s crust. Metals are found as in rocks metal compounds. The usual metal compounds found in rocks are O OO OXIDES, SULPHIDES and CARBONATES. A few metals are found uncombined, as they are very unreactive. Metals, which are found uncombined are called NATIVE METALS. The native metals are: Gold (Au) Platinum (Pt) Silver (Ag) Copper (Cu)

4 potassiumsodiumlithiumcalciummagnesiumaluminiumzincirontinleadcoppermercurysilvergold METAL DATE OF DISCOVERY Rocks, which contain metals or compounds of metals are called O OO ORES. As man’s knowledge of chemistry increased more metals were discovered, as ways of extracting metals were found. The least reactive metals were discovered the earliest AncientAncientAncientAncientAncientAncientAncientAncient REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS Using the N5 Chemistry Data Booklet; complete the REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS with the Date of Discovery in your notes. Using the N5 Chemistry Data Booklet; complete the REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS with the Date of Discovery in your notes. EXAMPLES OF METAL ORES Using the information on metal ores in the following slides; complete the EXAMPLES OF METAL ORES table in your notes. Using the information on metal ores in the following slides; complete the EXAMPLES OF METAL ORES table in your notes.

5 NAME OF ORE NAME OF METAL COMPOUND IN ORE METAL IN ORE Iron pyrites (Fools Gold) iron sulphide Malachite copper carbonate Galena lead sulphide iron copper lead

6 NAME OF ORE NAME OF METAL COMPOUND IN ORE METAL IN ORE aluminium oxide iron(III) oxide tin(IV) oxide aluminium iron tin Haematite (Blood Stone) Cassiterite Bauxite

7 To extract a metal from an ore requires heat. Some metal oxides break down by heat alone. HEAT HEAT

8 heat heat Breaking down a compound into its elements from which it is made is called a DECOMPOSITION REACTION heat

9 HEAT cold water Drop hot test tube into cold water

10 + carbon + + C + heat heat C heat

11 Iron is extracted from its ore using carbon. The reaction requires a lot of heat. To provide the necessary heat the reaction is carried out in a BLAST FURNACE. Iron ore, coke (carbon) and limestone enter the furnace from the top of the furnace. The extraction of the iron happens in 3 stages. STAGE 1: The coke (carbon) burns to produce carbon dioxide CO 2. STAGE 1 C(s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) STAGE 2: The CO 2 from stage 1 reacts with more carbon to form carbon monoxide CO. CO 2 (g) + C(s) 2CO(g) STAGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 3: The CO from stage 2 reacts with iron(III) oxide Fe 2 O 3 in the iron ore removing the oxygen. Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 3CO(s) 2Fe( l ) + 3CO 2 (g) Molten iron flows to the bottom of the furnace. Fe( l )

12 heat heat heat 3 +

13 heat heat 3 2 3

14 Aluminium is too reactive to extract by heating with carbon or carbon monoxide. All reactive metals from aluminium upwards on the reactivity series are extracted using E EE ELECTROLYSIS. Bauxite The bauxite ore is purified to produce pure aluminium oxide A AA Al2O3. This is called ALUMINA. Solid ionic compound do not conduct electricity as their ions are not free to move. Alumina

15 Carbon positive electrodes. Carbon lining as the negative electrode. Solution of aluminium oxide in molten cryolite. Molten aluminium collects at the bottom. +

16 Often the properties of a pure metal makes it unsuitable for the purposes we wish to use it. Iron, for example, rusts easily and is quite brittle. The properties of metals can be altered, by adding small quantities of other metals, or non-metals, to make a new metal called an A AA ALLOY. An ALLOY is a metal made by mixing different metals, or metals with non-metals. Alloys improve the properties of metals by making them h hh harder, s ss stronger and more resistant to corrosion. ALLOY CAR WHEEL SOLDER STAINLESS STEEL BRONZE

17 Mild steel Stainless steel 12-carat gold DuraluminBronzeBrass Cupro- nickel iron carbon Girders, cars, tools iron chromium, nickel Sinks, taps, cutlery gold silver, copper Jewellery aluminium copper, magnesium Aircraft bodywork copper tin Coins, knives, swords copper zinc Ornaments, bells musical instruments copper nickel “Silver” coins ALLOY MAIN METAL OTHER ELEMENTS PRESENT USES


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