2Elements found in the Earth’s crust Metals make up a relatively small proportion of the Earth’s crust and are normally found in rocks as ores46%Oxygen28%SiliconAluminium8%5%Iron4%Calcium3%SodiumMagnesium2%Potassium2%Titanium0.5%Hydrogen0.5%All other elements1%
3Most metals are found as ores Bauxite – aluminium oxide (Al2O3)Haematite – iron oxide (Fe2O3)Malachite – copper carbonate (CuCO3)In ores, the metal or metal compound is concentrated enough to make it economic to extract the metal.Some unreactive metals such as gold can be found as the metal itself – chemical separation is not needed.
4The method used to extract a metal from its ore depends on the reactivity of the metal. K Na Ca Mg AlZn Fe Sn PbCu Ag Au PtMost reactiveVery reactive metals – extracted using electrolysisCMore reactive metals – usually extracted by reduction – heating with carbon to remove oxygenHUnreactive metals – little or no extraction neededLeast reactiveSometimes non-metals are included for reference.
5Using the reactivity series, decide which items would be most corroded. Gold ringIron swordCopper pinSilver bracelet
6Match the material to the use given the property. Steel Cast iron Pure Iron
7The extraction of iron – reduction in the blast furnace Raw materialsron ore (haematite)I_______C____okehot waste gasesL________imestoneiron oxide + carbon (coke)iron + carbon dioxidea reduction (loss of oxygen) – the iron oxide is reduced to iron metal1500oChot airhot airmolten slagmolten iron
8Blast furnaces (for extracting iron) at Port Talbot
9SteelIron from the blast furnace (cast iron) is brittle since it contains about 4% carbon. It therefore has limited uses.Similarly pure iron (wrought iron) is too soft for many uses.Therefore most iron is converted into steel.Steel is basically iron with up to 1.5% carbon.Many other metals can be added to make alloy steels with a wide range of properties.Iron from the blast furnace being converted into steel
11The Angel of the North is made of a steel alloy – iron combined with a small amount of copper
12Stainless steel (iron with about 15% chromium) is perfect for cutlery and razor blades etc. Stainless steel doesn’t rust.
13Metals are malleable They can be hammered or bent into shape Most pure metals have their atoms arranged in a regular pattern and the layers of atoms can easily slide over one another when a force is applied.Force causes layers of atoms to slide over one another
14Alloys are harder than pure metals Alloys are mixtures of metals (or in the case of some steels iron mixed with carbon). They are stronger than pure metals.The different sized atoms of other metals stop the layers sliding over one another
15CopperMalachite – copper orePolished malachiteCopper is a good heat and electrical conductor and used for saucepans and electrical wire.Since it is an unreactive metal it is also used for water pipes and coinage.
16The outside of the Statue of Liberty is made from copper. Over time, the colour has changed as the copper has weathered.
17Why are aluminium alloys used for the following?
18Aluminium is extracted from the ore bauxite Aluminium is the most common metal in the Earth's crust.Aluminium is extracted from the ore bauxiteHowever it is a reactive metal (high in the reactivity series) and has to be extracted using electrolysis (passing electricity through the molten ore).Because lots of energy is needed and there are several stages to the process, aluminium is relatively expensive despite being a common metal.
20Open cast mining for metal ores What effect does this have on the environment?
21Uses of aluminiumLike most metals, pure aluminium is not used very much – it is usually made into alloys.Alloys of aluminium have low density and high strength, vital for the aerospace industry.Aluminium alloys were used to make the external fuel tanks of the space shuttle.
22Because of its low density and good electrical conductivity, aluminium is used in overhead power cables.Although aluminium is a reactive metal it is normally covered with a protective oxide layer and doesn’t corrode easily.
23TitaniumLike aluminium, titanium is an extremely useful metal because it is light, strong and resists corrosion.Titanium oreIt was used in the manufacture of Concorde….. and is used in artificial hip joints
24Good conductors of heat and electricity The transition metalsThese are found in the middle block of the Periodic TableScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnThey are useful metals and have typical metallic properties:Good conductors of heat and electricityStrongMalleableHigh melting point
25Recycling metalsSix billion aluminium cans are made each year – this is enough to reach to the moon and back!It takes the same amount of energy to make one new aluminium can as it does to make twenty recycled cans!So recycling metals such as aluminium:Saves energyProtects the environment – less rain forest has to be cut down to dig out metal oresConserves the limited supplies of metal oresReduces the amount of waste sent to landfill sites
26Smart alloysAfter they are bent or deformed, these alloys regain their original shape – they have a shape memory.They have many uses e.g.Dental bracesThe dental brace pulls the teeth into the right position as it warms up!