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Chapter 12 – Steel Products Key: carbon content: –Steel – alloy consisting mostly of iron with a little carbon (0.05% - 2.04% by weight) –Also have: Iron.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 – Steel Products Key: carbon content: –Steel – alloy consisting mostly of iron with a little carbon (0.05% - 2.04% by weight) –Also have: Iron."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter 12 – Steel Products Key: carbon content: –Steel – alloy consisting mostly of iron with a little carbon (0.05% % by weight) –Also have: Iron = iron-carbon alloy with less than 0.005% carbon. Cast iron = carbon content between 2.1% - 4.0% Wrought iron – contains 1 – 3% by weight of slag in the form of particles elongated in one direction – more rust resistant than steel and welds better

3 Brief History: Iron age (12 th century BC) (mostly wrought iron) – weapons made with inefficient smelting methods. The best weapons? When iron combined with carbon! Became more common after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century. With invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, steel became relatively inexpensive, easily mass-produced and high quality. Blast Furnace then Bessemer Furnace Low cost method for removing carbon and impurities

4 The abcs of Steel Making: Raw Material: –Carbon in the form of coke –Iron ore (Fe 2 O 3 ) –Limestone (CaCO 3 ) –Air (lots of it!!)

5 The abcs of Steel Making: Coke –Solid residue product from the destructive distillation of coal. –About 80 to 95% C. –Made by heating black coal in small ovens at 300 C for 24 hours in a coke plant.

6 The abcs of Steel Making: The iron ore –Consists of oxides in nature of iron and oxygen Primarily magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) or hematite (Fe 2 O 3 )magnetitehematite The blast furnace basically separates the iron from the oxygen in a reduction process –Mined primarily in Australia, Brazil and Canada.

7 The abcs of Steel Making: The limestone –Acts as a flux – converts impurities in the ore into a fuseable slag

8 The abcs of Steel Making: Air –Preheated by fuel gas from the coke ovens to about 1000 C. –Delivered to the blast furnace at 6,000 m 3 /min –Passes through furnace and burns the coke to produce heat required and also generates the carbon monoxide.

9 The abcs of Steel Making: Typical blast furnace: –1.6 tons of iron ore –0.18 tons of limestone –0.6 tons of coke –2 -3 tons of preheated air

10 The abcs of Steel Making: Step 1 – The Blast Furnace: –Stands 300 feet tall –Designed to run continuously for 4 -5 years before being relined. –Heat generated by burning coke in the preheated air. –Coke acts as reducing agent and changes to carbon monoxide (the reducing agent) which removes the oxygen from the iron oxide.

11 The abcs of Steel Making: Step 1 – The Blast Furnace: –Two important chemical reactions: Oxidation of the carbon from coke: Reduction of iron ore:

12 The abcs of Steel Making: Step 1 – The Blast Furnace: –Four primary zones – the bottom zone (zone 4) reaches temperature of 1800 C – this is where iron is tapped off. –The top zone (zone 1) – where coke is burned and moisture driven off. –Zone 2 – slag coagulates and is removed.

13 The abcs of Steel Making: Step 1 – The Blast Furnace: –Products from the blast furnace: Iron transported in steel shelled ladles Pig iron (brittle w/ 4% carbon)

14 Step 2: Manufacturing of Steel from Iron Two common methods: –Bessemer Furnace = Ingots = molten steel poured into molds to create ingots which then go through forging press and roughing mill to create billet, bloom or slab, OR: –Continuous cast – continuous process to again create a billet, bloom, slab or as cast semis

15 Step 2 – The Bessemer converter: –Used for REFINEMENT: Takes pig iron with high C content and removes C. Removes impurities such as Si and Mn (via oxides) –Much smaller furnace (vs. Blast furnace) –Lowered cost of steel making –Poured into molds to form ingots Replaced by basic oxygen process and electric arc furnace.

16 Steel Ingots (after step 2)

17 Figure 9-12: processing of refined steel into products.

18 F 9-13 – The whole spectrum of steel products!

19 Optional Step 2 (directly from blast furnace) Step 2 w/ Continuous Casting Overcomes the ingot related difficulties of: –Piping and entrapped slag –More cost effective Process –molten metal continuously flows from the ladle into a tundish –through a bottomless,water-cooled mold –temp controlled water spray not fully cooled –Straightened, reheated, sized, and cut-off –Advantages –Common for Structural Shapes

20 Continuous Casting


22 Steel Types (Brief Overview) Much more detail in Chapter 14

23 Cast Iron Types (remember carbon > 2%) Gray iron Ductile iron Austempered ductile iron White iron Malleable iron Much more will be said about cast irons later!

24 HRS vs. CRS HRS –AKA hot finishing – ingots or continuous cast shapes rolled in the HOT condition to a smaller shape. –Since hot, grains recrystallize without material getting harder! –Dislocations are annihilated (recall dislocations impede slip motion). HRS Characterized by: –Extremely ductile (i.e. % elongation 20 to 30%) –Moderate strength (Su approx 60 – 75 ksi for 1020) –Rough surface finish – black scale left on surface.

25 HRS vs. CRS CRS –AKA cold finishing – coil of HRS rolled through a series of rolling mills AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. –Since rolled at room temperature, get crystal defects called dislocations which impede motion via slip! –AKA work hardening –Limit to how much you can work harden before too brittle. –How reverse? Can recrystallize by annealing. CRS Characterized by: –Less ductlie – almost brittle (i.e. % elongation 5 to 10%) –High strength (Su approx 120 ksi for 1020)


27 AISI - SAE Classification System American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) classifies alloys by chemistry 4 digit number –1 st number is the major alloying agent –2 nd number designates the subgroup alloying agent –last two numbers approximate amount of carbon ( expresses in 0.01%)

28 Plain Carbon Steel vs. Alloy Steel Plain Carbon Steel (10xx) Lowest cost Should be considered first in most application 3 Classifications –Low Carbon Steel –Medium Carbon Steel –High Carbon Steel

29 Plain Carbon Steel (10xx) 1018 –Low carbonYield strength 55ksi 1045 –Medium carbonYield strength 70ksi ASTM A36 or A37 – aka structural steel –Low carbonYield strength 36ksi 12L14 –Low carbonYield strength 70ksi 1144 –Medium carbonYield strength 95ksi

30 Plain Carbon Steel vs. Alloy Steel Alloy Steel > 1.65%Mn, > 0.60% Si, or >0.60% Cu Most common alloy elements : –Chromium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, cobalt, boron, and copper. Added in small percents (<5%) –increase strength and hardenability Added in large percents (>20%) – improve corrosion resistance or stability at high or low temps

31 Corrosion Resistant Steel Stainless Steel 10.5% < Cr < 27% = stainless steel – used for corrosion resistance AISI assigns a 3 digit number –200 and 300 … Austenitic Stainless Steel –400 … Ferritic or Martensitic Stainless Steel –500 … Martensitic Stainless Steel

32 Tool Steel Wear Resistant, High Strength and Tough High Carbon steels Modified by alloy additions AISI-SAE Classification –Letter & Number Identification

33 Tool Steel Classification Letters pertain to significant characteristic –W,O,A,D,S,T,M,H,P,L,F –E.g. A is Air-Hardening medium alloy Numbers pertain to material type –1 thru 7 –E.g. 2 is Cold-work

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