3 II. A New Economy Roads, Canals, and Railroads Improvements in transportation lowered costs and linked farmers to marketsToll roads did little to help the economyImproved water transportation most dramatically increased the speed and lowered the expense of commercesteamboatcanalsRailroads opened the frontier to settlement and linked marketsTelegraph introduced a communication revolution
4 II. A New Economy (con’t) The Rise of the WestImprovements in transportation and communication made possible the rise of the West as a powerful, self-conscious region of the new nationPeople traveled in groups and cooperated with each other to clear land, build houses and barns, and establish communities“Squatters” set up farms on unoccupied landMany Americans settled without regard to national boundariesFlorida
5 II. A New Economy (con’t) The Cotton KingdomThe market revolution and westward expansion heightened the nation’s sectional divisionsThe rise of cotton production came with Eli Whitney’s cotton ginThe cotton gin revolutionized American slaveryThe Unfree Westward MovementHistorians estimate that around 1 million slaves were shifted from the older slave states to the Deep South between 1800 and 1860Slave trading became a well-organized businessslave cofflesCotton became the empire of liberty’s most important export
6 III. Market Society Commercial Farmers The Northwest became a region with an integrated economy of commercial farms and manufacturing citiesFarmers grew crops and raised livestock for saleThe East provided a source of credit and a marketBetween 1840 and 1860, America’s output of wheat nearly tripledsteel plowreaper
7 III. Market Society (con’t) The Growth of CitiesCities formed part of the western frontierCincinnatiChicagoThe nature of work shifted from “skilled artisan” to “factory worker”
8 III. Market Society (con’t) The Factory SystemSamuel Slater established America’s first factory in 1790Based on an “outwork” systemThe first large-scale American factory was constructed in 1814 at Waltham, MassachusettsLowell“American system of manufactures” relied on the mass production of interchangeable parts that could be rapidly assembled into standardized finished productsThe South lagged in factory production
9 III. Market Society (con’t) The Industrial WorkerAmericans became more aware of “clock time”Working for an hourly or daily wage seemed to violate the independence Americans considered an essential element of freedomNew England textile mills relied largely on female and child laborWestward migration and urban development created an energetic, materialistic and mobile population
10 III. Market Society (con’t) The transformation of lawThe corporate form of business organization became central to the new market economyMany Americans distrusted corporate charters as a form of government-granted special privilegeThe Supreme Court ruled on many aspects of corporations and employer/employee rights
11 IV. The Free Individual The West and Freedom American freedom had long been linked with the availability of land in the WestManifest destinyIn national myth and ideology the West would long remain “the last home of the freeborn American”The West was vital for economic independence, the social condition of freedom
12 IV. The Free Individual (con’t) The transcendentalistsRalph Waldo Emerson believed freedom was an open-ended process of self-realization by which individuals could remake themselves and their own livesIndividualismAmericans came to understand that no one person nor government had the right to interfere with the realm of the selfThoreau worried that the market revolution actually stifled individual judgmentWaldenGenuine freedom lay within
13 IV. The Free Individual (con’t) The Second Great AwakeningThe Second Great Awakening added a religious underpinning to the celebration of personal self-improvement, self-reliance, and self-determinationThe Reverend Charles Grandison Finney became a national celebrity for his preaching in upstate New YorkThe Second Great Awakening thoroughly democratized American ChristianityProliferation of ministersPromoted the doctrine of human free willRevivalist ministers seized the opportunities offered by the market revolution to spread their message
14 V. The Limits of Prosperity Liberty and ProsperityOfficial imagery linked the goddess of liberty ever more closely to emblems of material wealthOpportunities for the “self-made” man aboundedJohn Jacob AstorThe market revolution produced a new middle class
15 V. The Limits of Prosperity (con’t) Race and OpportunityFree blacks were excluded from the new economic opportunitiesBarred from schools and other public facilities, free blacks laboriously constructed their own institutional lifeAfrican Methodist Episcopal ChurchFree blacks were confined to the lowest ranks of the labor marketFree blacks were not allowed access to public land in the West
16 V. The Limits of Prosperity (con’t) The Cult of DomesticityA new definition of femininity emerged based on values like love, friendship, and mutual obligation“Virtue” came to be redefined as a personal moral quality associated more and more closely with womenWomen were to find freedom in fulfilling their duties within their “sphere”
17 V. The Limits of Prosperity (con’t) Women and WorkOnly low-paying jobs were available to womendomestic servants, factory workers, and seamstressesNot working outside the home became a badge of respectability for womenFreedom was freedom from laborAlthough middle-class women did not work outside the home, they did much work as wife and mother
18 V. The Limits of Prosperity (con’t) The Early Labor MovementSome felt the market revolution reduced their freedomEconomic swings widened the gap between classesThe first Workingmen’s parties were established in the 1820sBy 1830s strikes had become commonplace
19 V. The Limits of Prosperity (con’t) The “Liberty of Living”Wage workers evoked “liberty” when calling for improvements in the workplaceSome described wage labor as the very essence of slaveryEconomic security formed an essential part of American freedom
20 The Market Revolution: Roads and Canals, 1840 • pg. 313
21 Travel Times from New York City in 1800 and 1830 • pg. 315
22 The Market Revolution: Western Settlement, 1800–1820 • pg. 316
23 The Market Revolution: The Spread of Cotton Cultivation, 1820–1840 The Market Revolution: The Spread of Cotton Cultivation, 1820–1840 • pg. 320The Market Revolution: The Spread of Cotton Cultivation, 1820–1840
27 fig09_01.jpgPages 306–7: Mill on the Brandywine, an 1830 watercolor of a Pennsylvania paper mill. Because it relied on water power, much early manufacturing took place in the countryside.Credit: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, Marian S. Carson Collection, LC-USZC
28 fig09_03.jpgPage 309: An 1810 advertisement for a stagecoach route linking Boston and Sandwich, Massachusetts, reveals the slow speed and high cost of land transportation in the early nineteenth century. It took the entire day (beginning at 5 a.m.), and cost around fifty dollars in today's money to travel the fifty-seven miles between the towns, with stops along the way for breakfast and lunch.Credit: I.N. Stokes Collection, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints, and Photographs, The New York Public Library; Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations.
29 fig09_07.jpgPage 311: Rochester, New York, one of many cities that sprang up along the Erie Canal, shown in the foreground. This engraving shows the city in 1853.Credit: I.N. Stokes Collection, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints, and Photographs, The New York Public Library; Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations.
30 fig09_12.jpgPage 321: Lagonda Agricultural Works, a color lithograph from 1859 advertising an Ohio manufacturer of agricultural machinery, in this case a horse-drawn reaper.Credit: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, LC-USZC
31 fig09_18a.jpgPage 331: The philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson, writing in the 1830s, declared that the keynote of the times was "the new importance given to the single person.Credit: Corbis.
32 fig09_20.jpgPage 334: Das neue Jerusalem (the New Jerusalem), an early nineteenth-century watercolor, in German, illustrates the narrow gateway to heaven and the fate awaiting sinners in hell. These were common themes of preachers in the Second Great Awakening.Credit: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division LC-USZC
33 fig09_21a.jpgPage 335 (top): The official seal of New Jersey (1776; with the motto "Liberty and Prosperity" added in 1821) reflects the widespread identification of freedom with technological progress and material prosperity.Credit: J. Franklin Reigart, The United States Album 1844.
34 fig09_21b.jpgPage 335 (bottom): The official seal of Arkansas (1836) reflects the widespread identification of freedom with technological progress and material prosperity.Credit: J. Franklin Reigart, The United States Album 1844.
35 fig09_23.jpgPage 337: Juliann Jane Tillman, a preacher in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, in an 1844 engraving. Many Protestant denominations allowed women to preach, although their presence also aroused much criticism.Credit: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division LC-USZC
36 fig09_28.jpgPage 342: The Shoemaker’s Strike in Lynn—Procession in the Midst of a Snow-Storm, of Eight Hundred Women Operatives, an engraving from Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, March 17, The striking women workers carry a banner comparing their condition to that of slaves.Credit: Reproduced from the Collections of the Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ
38 Give Me Liberty! An American History End chap. 9W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-OwnedThis concludes the Norton Media LibrarySlide Set for Chapter 9Give Me Liberty!An American HistorybyEric Foner