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Shakespeare in Love with Canaveses Class A beautiful and intriguing tale of human triumph, deception, and mistaken identity all played out within a theatre.

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Presentation on theme: "Shakespeare in Love with Canaveses Class A beautiful and intriguing tale of human triumph, deception, and mistaken identity all played out within a theatre."— Presentation transcript:

1 Shakespeare in Love with Canaveses Class A beautiful and intriguing tale of human triumph, deception, and mistaken identity all played out within a theatre.

2 The versin birth (and the beginning of a profitable tourist industry) The versin birth (and the beginning of a profitable tourist industry) b. ~ Apr. 23, 1564; d. Apr. 23, 1616 in Stratford – upon – Avon (river) b. ~ Apr. 23, 1564; d. Apr. 23, 1616 in Stratford – upon – Avon (river) Shakespeares birthplace Shakespeares birthplace

3 Billy the Kid Father John (glover + town bailiff / councilman) longed to move up in social status – belong to the gentry Father John (glover + town bailiff / councilman) longed to move up in social status – belong to the gentry Mother Mary (Arden)s family was gentry, but she lost this distinction with marriage Mother Mary (Arden)s family was gentry, but she lost this distinction with marriage W.S. in grammar school: studied Latin, but English not offered as a subject; prob. studied some Greek; read classics in Latin, like works of Ovid. No math, science, history, geography W.S. in grammar school: studied Latin, but English not offered as a subject; prob. studied some Greek; read classics in Latin, like works of Ovid. No math, science, history, geography

4 On Tour Actors needed a license and patronage to tour + perform. Though revered as celebrities today, actors were considered low-class sorts by many in Shakespeares day. Actors needed a license and patronage to tour + perform. Though revered as celebrities today, actors were considered low-class sorts by many in Shakespeares day.

5 1576, The Year that Was. Before 1576, all performances had been in inn (court)yards + guild halls. In 1576, James Burbage built the first theatre in London. It was in fact just outside London, for reasons explained on the next slide. Before 1576, all performances had been in inn (court)yards + guild halls. In 1576, James Burbage built the first theatre in London. It was in fact just outside London, for reasons explained on the next slide. Burbages building was called The Theatre (the word, from the Greek, means seeing place) Burbages building was called The Theatre (the word, from the Greek, means seeing place) Theatre was liked by the general public, but increasingly condemned by clergy + govt., who called it sinful, a drain on the time + $ of workers and a dangerous gathering of people. Theatre was liked by the general public, but increasingly condemned by clergy + govt., who called it sinful, a drain on the time + $ of workers and a dangerous gathering of people. Those guys were referred to as real jerks. Those guys were referred to as real jerks.

6 That Last Slide Continued London Council had, in 1574, put restrictions on acting companies, including no Sunday performances. (come on, what is this Communist China?) London Council had, in 1574, put restrictions on acting companies, including no Sunday performances. (come on, what is this Communist China?) Burbage built his theatre just outside city limits Burbage built his theatre just outside city limits The audiences included apprentices (who made up most of the groundlings) + women (who enjoyed the dirty jokes) The audiences included apprentices (who made up most of the groundlings) + women (who enjoyed the dirty jokes) Shakespeare worked w/ Burbages sons Cuthbert (business partner) and Richard (actor) for most of his career (1594-1610, at least) Shakespeare worked w/ Burbages sons Cuthbert (business partner) and Richard (actor) for most of his career (1594-1610, at least)

7 1582, the Year that Was almost 1576 W.S. (age 18) married Anne Hathaway (age 26), who gave birth six months later (they may have had a pre-contract that made them an official couple). Lots of couples did this back in the day before they had their official wedding, so their child may not have been considered conceived out of wedlock. Still, the child may well have been the reason Shakespeare got married. (Think carefully before you shake your spears, boys.) W.S. (age 18) married Anne Hathaway (age 26), who gave birth six months later (they may have had a pre-contract that made them an official couple). Lots of couples did this back in the day before they had their official wedding, so their child may not have been considered conceived out of wedlock. Still, the child may well have been the reason Shakespeare got married. (Think carefully before you shake your spears, boys.)

8 A lot of tots fill slots; forget them not 1583: Daughter Susanna born. 1583: Daughter Susanna born. 1585: Twins Hamnet (boy) + Judith (girl) born 1585: Twins Hamnet (boy) + Judith (girl) born

9 Trouble in Paradise Soon after, W.S. left family in Stratford moved to London (Anne was probably Puritan, which would explain why she would not support his theatre career) Soon after, W.S. left family in Stratford moved to London (Anne was probably Puritan, which would explain why she would not support his theatre career) However, this was not a very upstanding thing to do. If you have a family, you cant just walk out on them, you just gotta sack up. But Shakespeare was a sweet writer, maybe even the sweetest writer ever, so people usually forgive him for leaving his family. However, this was not a very upstanding thing to do. If you have a family, you cant just walk out on them, you just gotta sack up. But Shakespeare was a sweet writer, maybe even the sweetest writer ever, so people usually forgive him for leaving his family.

10 10 Stratford to London

11 1585-1592: The Lost Years No historical records detail this period, but we assume he trained as an actor and… No historical records detail this period, but we assume he trained as an actor and… More importantly, made a decision from which he could never turn back, and which would ultimately change the course of history: he began to write plays... More importantly, made a decision from which he could never turn back, and which would ultimately change the course of history: he began to write plays...

12 Also in 1592, some jerk was talking smack about our boy. W.S. attacked in print by university wit + former playwright Robert Greene, who wroteno doubt jealous of this young mans instant successThere is an upstart crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his tygers heart wrapped in a players hyde, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country. W.S. attacked in print by university wit + former playwright Robert Greene, who wroteno doubt jealous of this young mans instant successThere is an upstart crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his tygers heart wrapped in a players hyde, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country.

13 1592-1594 1592-1594: Theatres closed by London Council due to the plague. With no reason to write for the stage, Shakespeare focused on writing poems. 1592-1594: Theatres closed by London Council due to the plague. With no reason to write for the stage, Shakespeare focused on writing poems. 1593: poem Venus and Adonis 1593: poem Venus and Adonis 1594: poem The Rape of Lucrece 1594: poem The Rape of Lucrece - Joined Lord Chamberlains Men (acting company), which was under the patronage of the Queen (the Master of the Revels approved plays for the Queen + eventually all of England)

14 More stuff happens 1597: W.S. buys New Place in Stratford; secures family coat of arms; Lord Chs Men lose their lease 1597: W.S. buys New Place in Stratford; secures family coat of arms; Lord Chs Men lose their lease 1599: W.S. becomes partner in Company, investing in the construction of the Globe Theatre 1599: W.S. becomes partner in Company, investing in the construction of the Globe Theatre 1603: Queen Elizabeth dies; King James I crowned; company becomes the Kings Men 1603: Queen Elizabeth dies; King James I crowned; company becomes the Kings Men 1609: Kings Men acquire Blackfriars (indoor theatre) 1609: Kings Men acquire Blackfriars (indoor theatre)

15 Retirement, fire, and death 1610: W.S. retires to Stratford; continues to write (in collaboration with John Fletcher) 1610: W.S. retires to Stratford; continues to write (in collaboration with John Fletcher) 1613: Globe burns during packed performance of W.S.s Henry VIII 1613: Globe burns during packed performance of W.S.s Henry VIII April 23, 1616: the day the poetry died (yep, we think he died on his birthday) April 23, 1616: the day the poetry died (yep, we think he died on his birthday) He bequeathed his "second-best bed" to his wife; often interpreted as a slight, but this would most likely have been the family bed, the best bed being for guests. He bequeathed his "second-best bed" to his wife; often interpreted as a slight, but this would most likely have been the family bed, the best bed being for guests. Inscription on Shakespeares grave: Good friend for Jesus sake forbear Inscription on Shakespeares grave: Good friend for Jesus sake forbear To dig the dust enclosed here. Blest be the man that spares these stones, And curst be he that moves my bones.

16 Life doesnt go on (but the plays do) 1623: 1623: First folio published by 2 of Shakespeares former acting partners: John Heminges + Henry Condell. Previous Quartos were bootleg 1997: 1997: New Globe opened by Queen Elizabeth II

17 17 Elizabethan Theatres Flowering of theatre. The Renaissance (rebirth) grew from Englands medieval theatre of mystery and morality plays with some stylistic infusion from educate mens common reading of the Roman playwrights (Terence, Plautus, Seneca). Flowering of theatre. The Renaissance (rebirth) grew from Englands medieval theatre of mystery and morality plays with some stylistic infusion from educate mens common reading of the Roman playwrights (Terence, Plautus, Seneca). City authorities would often ban theatrical productions… gatherings encouraged crime. City authorities would often ban theatrical productions… gatherings encouraged crime. Theatres: The Theatre and The Curtain in North London; The Rose, the Swan, and The Globe (1599) in South London. Theatres: The Theatre and The Curtain in North London; The Rose, the Swan, and The Globe (1599) in South London. Christopher Marlow (1564-1593) – Tamburlane the Great, Faustus, Edward II Christopher Marlow (1564-1593) – Tamburlane the Great, Faustus, Edward II Ben Jonson (1572-1637) – Volpone, The Fox Ben Jonson (1572-1637) – Volpone, The Fox Shakespeare (1564-1616) Shakespeare (1564-1616)

18 18 Elizabethan Theatres Wooden, circular structure, open to the sun Wooden, circular structure, open to the sun The pit (groundlings) vs. the galleries The pit (groundlings) vs. the galleries Audience close to the actors Audience close to the actors Women not allowed on stage (teenage boys) Women not allowed on stage (teenage boys) No scenery, few props, but elaborate costumes No scenery, few props, but elaborate costumes

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21 21 Iambic Pentameter The poetic form used by Shakespeare is Iambic Pentameter Iambic Pentameter is a rhythmical pattern of syllables Iambic: rhythm goes from unstressed syllable to a stressed one. Rhythmic examples: divine caress bizarre Iambic: rhythm goes from unstressed syllable to a stressed one. Rhythmic examples: divine caress bizarre Like a heartbeat: daDUM daDUM Each iamb is called a foot There are other rhythms. I.e., trochaic = DUMda There are other rhythms. I.e., trochaic = DUMda Pentameter = the rhythm is repeated 5 times – each line is 10 syllables: Pentameter = the rhythm is repeated 5 times – each line is 10 syllables: daDUM daDUM daDUM daDUM daDUM

22 22 Iambic Pentameter Pentameter = the rhythm is repeated 5 times daDUM daDUM daDUM daDUM daDUM The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step On which I must fall down, or else oer-leap, For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires! Let not light see my black and deep desires. Shakespeare will sometimes end iambic pentameter on an unstressed syllable, so that the last foot sounds like this: daDUMda. Shakespeare will sometimes end iambic pentameter on an unstressed syllable, so that the last foot sounds like this: daDUMda. To be, or not to be, that is the question. To be, or not to be, that is the question. Is this a dagger which I see before me Is this a dagger which I see before me

23 23 Blank Verse Blank Verse = unrhymed iambic pentameter Blank Verse = unrhymed iambic pentameter Exceptions: Exceptions: Rhyming couplets often at the end of monologues/scenes, used for emphasis Rhyming couplets often at the end of monologues/scenes, used for emphasis

24 24 Shakespeares Sonnets Sonnets = 14 lines of iambic pentameter Sonnets = 14 lines of iambic pentameter Originally created in Italy in the 1200s Originally created in Italy in the 1200s Shakespearean Sonnet = 3 quatrains and a final couplet (ABAB CDCD EFEF GG) Shakespearean Sonnet = 3 quatrains and a final couplet (ABAB CDCD EFEF GG)

25 25 Elizabethan Age – Jacobean Age Shakespeare gains his notoriety during a time when theatre is flourishing – the Elizabethan Age. Shakespeare gains his notoriety during a time when theatre is flourishing – the Elizabethan Age. Named after Queen Elizabeth I, who reigns until 1603. Named after Queen Elizabeth I, who reigns until 1603. King James I reigns during the rest of Shakespeares life. Shakespeare (arguably) writes Macbeth in 1606 to honor the King. King James I reigns during the rest of Shakespeares life. Shakespeare (arguably) writes Macbeth in 1606 to honor the King.

26 26 Elizabethan Age – Jacobean Age Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603) – Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Protestant. The Virgin Queen. Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603) – Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Protestant. The Virgin Queen. Takes throne from Mary I (aka Bloody Mary), a Catholic who executed Protestants in large numbers. Takes throne from Mary I (aka Bloody Mary), a Catholic who executed Protestants in large numbers. Elizabeth I firmly establishes the Church of England (begun by her father); took the Church the middle way between Catholic origins and Protestant Reformation Elizabeth I firmly establishes the Church of England (begun by her father); took the Church the middle way between Catholic origins and Protestant Reformation England emerges as the leading naval and commercial power of the Western world. Elizabeth I's England consolidates its position with the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588. England emerges as the leading naval and commercial power of the Western world. Elizabeth I's England consolidates its position with the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588. Elizabeth names James VI of Scotland to be the heir to the throne. Elizabeth names James VI of Scotland to be the heir to the throne. Takes the crown as James I, and rules from 1603-1625. The Jacobean Age. Takes the crown as James I, and rules from 1603-1625. The Jacobean Age.

27 27 16 th century London center of culture and commerce. center of culture and commerce. population grew 400% from 1500 to 1600, reaching nearly 200,000 people in the city proper and outlying region by the time Shakespeare arrived. population grew 400% from 1500 to 1600, reaching nearly 200,000 people in the city proper and outlying region by the time Shakespeare arrived. Thriving merchant middle class Thriving merchant middle class Booming economy Booming economy

28 28 The Four Humours A traditional theory of physiology in which the state of health - and by extension the state of mind, or character - depended upon a balance among the four elemental fluids: blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile. A traditional theory of physiology in which the state of health - and by extension the state of mind, or character - depended upon a balance among the four elemental fluids: blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile. These were closely allied with the four elements (air, fire, water, and earth). Their correspondence is described as follows… These were closely allied with the four elements (air, fire, water, and earth). Their correspondence is described as follows…

29 29 The Humours SANGUINE: Blood SANGUINE: Blood Hot and moist; (Air) Hot and moist; (Air) Amorous, happy, generous Amorous, happy, generous MELANCHOLIC: Black Bile MELANCHOLIC: Black Bile Cold and dry ; (Earth) Cold and dry ; (Earth) Gluttonous, lazy, sentimental Gluttonous, lazy, sentimental PHLEGMATIC: Phlegm –Cold and moist; (Water ) –Dull, pale, cowardly CHOLERIC: Yellow Bile –Hot and dry; (Fire) –Violent, vengeful

30 30 The Humours The "humours" gave off vapors which ascended to the brain; an individual's personal characteristics (physical, mental, moral) were explained by his or her "temperament," or the state of that person's "humours." The "humours" gave off vapors which ascended to the brain; an individual's personal characteristics (physical, mental, moral) were explained by his or her "temperament," or the state of that person's "humours." The perfect temperament resulted when no one of these humours dominated. The perfect temperament resulted when no one of these humours dominated. By 1600 it was common to use "humour" as a means of classifying characters; knowledge of the humours is not only important to understanding later medieval work, but essential to interpreting Elizabethan drama. By 1600 it was common to use "humour" as a means of classifying characters; knowledge of the humours is not only important to understanding later medieval work, but essential to interpreting Elizabethan drama.

31 31 Shakespeares Life http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/quiz/bioq uiz.htm http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/quiz/bioq uiz.htm http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/quiz/bioq uiz.htm http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/quiz/bioq uiz.htm


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