Presentation on theme: "INTRO TO SHAKESPEARE AND THE ELIZABETHAN THEATRE Ms. Melvin."— Presentation transcript:
INTRO TO SHAKESPEARE AND THE ELIZABETHAN THEATRE Ms. Melvin
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE There are very few primary sources left that tell us about Shakespeare's life. He never gave an interview nor did he write a biography. Therefore, the most of what we do know comes from a few sources and from studying his works.
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (CONT.) William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in England. He was baptized on April 16, 1564. We do not know his exact birth date, but in Shakespeare's time period, babies were typically baptized within a few days of their birth. Therefore, we consider his birth date to be around this date. Shakespeare was middle-class, meaning he was not rich, but he was not poor either. His dad was a glove maker, a leather worker, an alderman (meaning he worked underneath the mayor), and a mayor. His mother was the wealthy Mary Arden. The marriage was good for John because of Mary's higher social status.
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (CONT.) Because of his writing style and writing content, it is assumed that Shakespeare was well educated although we have no records of where he was actually educated. It is assumed he attended grammar school in Stratford-upon-Avon. Shakespeare was taught Latin and Greek and Roman mythology: we know this because he mentions them a lot in his plays. There is no record of Shakespeare ever attending a university. Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway in 1582 when he was 18. At the time of their wedding, she was pregnant with their first child (which would have been a scandal) and 26 years old (which was very old for a woman to be unmarried.) They lived with his parents in the early years of marriage.
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (CONT.) The couple had 3 children: Susanna, born in 1583 (William and Anne had been married for six months), and the twins, Judith and Hamnet, born in 1585. Hamnet died from the plague at only eleven years old. His death understandably upset Shakespeare. Shakespeare worked as an actor and playwright for the acting troupe called Lord Chamberlain's Men. The troupe was later called the King's Men after they began performing for King James: Shakespeare was a favorite playwright of Queen Elizabeth and her successor, King James. Shakespeare also was a businessman, becoming a part owner of the Globe Theater, a popular theater in London.
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (CONT.) In 1611, Shakespeare had enough money to buy New House in Stratford-upon-Avon, and move back home. Although he moved back home with monetary comfort, he continued to write plays. Henry VIII was first performed in 1613 at the Globe Theater. In 1616 at the age of 52, William Shakespeare died. The cause of his death is unknown, but his body was buried in the Holy Trinity church in Stratford-upon-Avon. In his will, Shakespeare left Susanna the bulk of his fortune (which may have been part of her dowry). Judith was left a small sum, and Anne, his wife, was left his "second best bed," which probably was their wedding bed.
SONNETS In Shakespeare's time, theaters were often being closed as a result of the black plague, the Puritans, or the government. Whenever theaters were closed, writers had to make livings in other ways. Sonnets were one of those ways. Sonnets were considered to be a high art form through which artists showed off their talents. Shakespeare was paid to write sonnets for patrons, who are wealthy people who pay for artwork.
Here are some definitions you need to know about Shakespearean sonnets: Stanza- A grouping of lines in a poem (think like a paragraph in prose), which has two or more lines and might have a common pattern of meter, rhyme, number of lines, and/or meaning within the poem. Quatrain- A stanza or poem containing four (4) lines. Octave- A stanza or poem containing eight (8) lines. Sestet- A stanza or poem containing six (6) lines. Couplet- two (2) paired, consecutive lines that rhyme (Ex. g g); they usually have the same meter and relate to the same topic.
Iambic Pentameter – five iambic FEET per line. Foot – two or more syllables that together make up the smallest unit of rhythm in a poem (Ex. iamb – a foot that has two syllables, one unstressed followed by one stressed) Iambic foot- an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, usually denoted as [ ^ / ] or [ - / ].
Shakespearean Sonnet- A type of sonnet made famous by William Shakespeare, which is composed of three quatrains and an ending couplet. The meter of a Shakespearean sonnet is iambic pentameter and it has a rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg. This type of sonnet may also be called an Elizabethan sonnet or an English sonnet.
Now that you have the important definitions, let's look at the important qualities of a Shakespearean sonnet:
Sonnet 18 Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? A Thou art more lovely and more temperate: B Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, A And summer's lease hath all too short a date: B Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, C And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; D And every fair from fair sometime declines, C By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; D * But thy eternal summer shall not fade E Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; F Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, E When in eternal lines to time thou growest: F So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, G So long lives this and this gives life to thee. G