Someone is always doing something! Superman, a beautiful woman, the bad guys flying, saving, lifting, shooting, fainting, escaping Nouns Verbs
Minimum Requirements for a Sentence? 1 Noun + 1 Verb = 1 Clause And every sentence has at least one clause. Time flies. My teacher adores grammar. These students are very intelligent. The baby is sleeping.
Meet the Verb! Action! But also non-action… Kick! Jump! Score! I just love thinking about grammar!
Some Examples: Action verbs Non-action verbs (also called non-progressive or stative verbs) Remember: Non-action verbs cannot be used in progressive tenses!
Learn when to use each form! Verbs have five forms Base Form They like to go out to dinner. -s Form He likes to go out to dinner. Past We cooked dinner at home last night. Present Participle My family is eating dinner right now. Past Participle We have already eaten lunch.
Tense: past, present, future Agreement: Remember to use that –s form! Auxiliaries are helping verbs : do, be, have, and modals Voice: active or passive (Is the subject doing the action?) Linking verbs: the equal sign verbs Transitive or Intransitive: Does the verb take an object ? Other useful things to know about verbs: review new
Find the verbs in these sentences: How much can you tell me about each of these verbs? Tense? Five forms? Agreement? Helping verbs? Linking? Transitive?
Proper or Common: Is it a name? Count or Non-count: Can I make it plural? Concrete or Abstract: Can I touch it? Collective Nouns: British versus American English Nouns Do Jobs: They can be subjects, objects, etc. Other things to know about nouns
Nouns: Proper or Common? a university a community college a city my professor his native country the zoo a history class our family doctor The University of Washington North Seattle Community College Seattle Professor Collins Ethiopia Woodland Park Zoo Modern European History 101 Doctor Zhivago Common NounsProper Nouns :
Nouns: Count or Non-count? an apple three rings many chairs my glasses all these cars! [a piece of] fruit some jewelry a lot of furniture my coffee all this traffic! CountNon-count: Dont add -s some, enough, a lot of
Never make them plural! Three Common Non-Count Nouns Information Homework Advice Information Homework Advice -s Ive gotten rather tired of correcting these three nouns…yawn…
Nouns: Concrete or Abstract? Book Teacher Office People Elevator War Intelligence Happiness Disease Democracy Things you can touch: Ideas:
Collective Nouns: Do they represent a group of many individual things (plural) or one unit (singular)? The committee make our policy decisions. The faculty choose the textbooks. The family enjoy vacations. The committee make s our policy decisions. The faculty choose s the textbooks. The family enjoy s vacations. British English tends to see collective nouns as plural American English tends to see collective nouns as singular Notice how this affects subject-verb agreement. Follow this idiom: When in Rome, do as the Romans do!
Noun Jobs Laura teaches this class. Subject Laura teaches this class. Direct Object Laura teaches English to her students. Object of a Preposition Laura is a teacher. [Laura = teacher ] Subject Complement
Noun Jobs: Laura teaches ESL to her students. Subject Who teaches? Laura! Direct Object What does Laura teach? ESL! Object of the Preposition To whom? [Her amazing] students!
Noun Jobs: The dog is chasing a child around the garden. Subject What is chasing? [The] dog! Direct Object Who is being chased? [A] child! Object of the Preposition Around what? [The] garden!
Complementsomething that completes. Subject complements follow linking verbs. A subject complement completes the idea of the subject: the subject and its complement refer to one person or thing. What about subject complements? Laura is a teacher. Laura = teacher Those women are my classmates. women = classmates The man in the grey suit is his doctor. man = doctor Laura is a teacher. Laura = teacher Those women are my classmates. women = classmates The man in the grey suit is his doctor. man = doctor subject subject complement Links
Noun is the name of one part of speech Subject, Object, & Subject Complement are the names of jobs that nouns can do in a sentence. Nouns do Noun Jobs Noun Jobs are different from Parts of Speech!
Part II: Now shake hands with six more! articles adjectives adverbs prepositions pronouns conjunctions These parts of speech modify : they give more information about other words. These parts of speech relate or connect things to other things:
Prepositions Prepositions show a relationship between a noun and another part of the sentence. Sometimes, the relationship is spatial.
To Learn More about Prepositions: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/prepositions.htm http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/594/01/ http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/prepositions.htm http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/594/01/ Giant List of Prepositions: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_prepositions
Pronouns replace other nouns A pronoun is a word that is used to represent a noun. Pronoun means for-a- noun. Pronouns must agree in number and gender with the nouns they stand for. The noun that a pronoun replaces is called its antecedent. Like nouns, pronouns do noun jobs in a sentence: they act as subjects, objects, etc.
Pronouns come in lots of yummy flavors: Personal Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Relative Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns
Personal Pronouns I You He, she, it We You They Me You Him, her, it Us You Them Subject PronounsObject Pronouns Like all nouns, pronouns do jobs in a sentence.
Pronoun or Adjective? If it replaces a noun and does a noun job, I call it a pronoun. If it modifies a noun, then I call it an adjective. The comic to the left is full of possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives. Which is which?
give us information about nouns & pronouns: The weather is beautiful today. This is an interesting class. I have a sweet little cat. Adjectives… Annie meow
Fun Facts about Adjectives: Adjectives have three degrees of comparison: the positivebig the comparativebigger the superlativethe biggest Participles can be used as adjectives: This is an interesting class, so the students are never bored! Nouns can also function as adjectives: The fire alarm rang loudly. He wrote a newspaper article about his adventure.
Use enough to make your writing interestingexciting, never bland. Dont use so many spicy adjectives that you cant taste the nouns and verbs. Adjectives add spice to your writing.
Use adjectives to describe Lauras garden: Colorful Crowded Wild Exotic Abundant Fragrant Overgrown Exuberant
Learn More about Adjectives http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/adjectives.htm Note: This site considers articles to be a kind of adjective, but I group articles in a separate part of speech.
Articles This is the easiest part of speech to learn! A An The Like adjectives, articles accompany nouns. Articles are a piece of cake!
Use An Before a Vowel Sound You should bring an umbrella. He will study at a university. She wants to find a husband. She hopes to marry an honest man. He is an NSCC student.
Because I was so hungry, I ate too quickly. Adverbs can do lots of cool stuff. The adverb so modifies the adjective hungry. The adverb too modifies the adverb quickly. The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate.
So lets show adverbs a little respect, please ! They really work hard to help us communicate.
Conjunctions Con- = with, together junct = act of joining } conjunctions let us combine words, phrases, and clauses 1. Laura enjoys teaching, gardening, and cooking. (3 words) 2. She has a husband named Peter and two sons named Alex and Carl. (2 phrases ) 3. Peters father lives near us, but Lauras father lives in California. (2 clauses) Bonus Question: What is a parallel structure?
Coordinating Conjunctions For And Nor But Or Yet So Fan Boys
Use conjunctions to combine two clauses into one sentence. Co ordinatingTwo equal clauses Sub ordinatingTwo unequal clauses Two Independent ClausesOne Clause is Dependent
after although as because before if since though unless until when while After you learn the parts of speech, you will understand English better. You will understand English better after you learn the parts of speech. If you yawn in my class, I will have a heart attack. You should understand nouns and verbs before you try to learn the other parts of speech. You wont move up to ESL 051 unless your grade in ESL 042 is at least 75%.
Analyze this sentence: Maria has studied very hard lately because she wants an excellent grade in her English class.
Independent Clause & Dependent Clause S S Maria has studied very hard lately because she noun verb verb adverb adv adv conjunction pron DO Obj/prep wants an excellent grade in her English class. verb article adj noun prep adj adj noun
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