Presentation on theme: "Main Findings & recommendations Click to see the next slides."— Presentation transcript:
Main Findings & recommendations Click to see the next slides
Focus on the young farmers A crucial period in a farmer life is happening after his wedding, living in average 1 to 5 years in the parents house to save money to prepare his own family settlement and also during the first steps of independence. Projects use to intervene during the capital accumulation strategic period, when the farming activities framework is already launched (around 40 years old = middle age with a less risky attitude because he is already beginning to think in terms of patrimony and try to capitalize his existents assets.) Thus, it would be interesting to pay a special attention to young farmers so as to experiment new push factors dynamics on the life cycle (migrations, high qualitative production with specialization, technical support on integrated farming etc…). Setting up services (cow bank, rice bank...) to facilitate the access of production means to young farmers will be an asset.
Support women empowerment In each age class, there is a huge women workers representation, with a quite high rate of widows, who are assuming many responsibilities in the family (in charge with the money in the household, decision making, taking care of children, education, supplying food...). Women are also dealing with many small businesses which represent substantial additional incomes or auto consumption assets for the family. However, even if women are participating in trainings, meetings..., they are not so well valorized and the gender equity is often a too marginal aspect of small scale agriculture projects. It would be interesting to base an approach on existing patriarchal solidarities between generations (from very young to the oldest healthy persons) in order to develop and optimize agricultural and non agricultural activities: To generate incomes and increase added value on farmers products (through small scale transformation, marketing and sales engineering) To create a vector of social dynamism in the rural areas.
A main constraint to tackle: lack of micro economic information and profitability visibility The study revealed a crucial lacks of profitability visibility on farmers agricultural activity. Farmers do not really know how profitable is one crop compared to another one. Moreover, they do not have a reliable access to the agricultural products prices at their level (which might be a huge problem on those times of big prices increase). Therefore, farmers adopt a less risky strategy with few investments, which also often means less profit. It would be interesting to create economical references on the main agricultural production (rice, chicken, pig...) through a network of pilot recorder in order to advice farmers economical choices. This might implemented neck and neck with a reliable price information service at a grass root level (system of panels at a village level for instance, regularly updated by local authorities.
A bank service in kind for the poorest with existent stakeholders Livestock is an existing and still potential source of incomes for Cambodian farmers, besides the revenue they receive from unpredictable crop cultivation. The study show that 20% of farmers get their main incomes from animal raising, especially pig and poultry, big ruminant requiring more capital. However, limited initial capital and the inaccessibility of credit remain major constraints on livestock growth even meeting local demand. Studies and experiences have shown that banks of animals in kind are very relevant to support the poorest people and give them the opportunity to access to the basic production means. We should experiment a bank in kind relying on existent stakeholders in countryside. The structure will provide basically poultry, pig and small farming tool to the more needed, and will be managed by some key leader in the village through individual contracts. This system allow poor farmers (for whom parental heritage is often very small) at least to eat what they produce and to launch a fast profitable business as soon as they gets surplus.
Face the poorest main cause of debt before thinking development In the study results, 73 % of farmers interviewed are currently indebted and among them, one third talked about health cause. When a farmer get sick and is unable to work; then there is no food. So he has three options: sell assets (especially land) for food and for health care, incur further debt or migrate. If the situation does not get better he sell house. At this stage he may end up living relying on daily subsistence strategies. And the story goes on… Thus, one primarily solution to allow poor growth is to tackle basic unexpected events in their life in order to avoid such decline. From this analysis, it appears that we should work in anticipation to major constraints happening in a farmer life. AVSF already work on safety nets through food security actions but many food shortage are resulting from farmers health issue. Health being one of the most dangerous cycle, concerted action on micro heath insurance through farmer organization is a crucial step to contemplate before to think about sustainable development initiatives. Some complementary investigation should be done before to contemplate any action…
Access to rice field To Cambodians people rice is more than just a grain: it is the basis of many cultural practices, belief about the universe organisation, and self-identification. For much of the population, rice accounts for over 70 percent of calorie intake and represents about 40 percent of food expenditure. Thats the reason why cultivate rice is a priority for poor people. Moreover, a significant proportion of the population is unable to meet minimum rice requirements, the critical periods generally being mid-July to mid-October. The study show that the main first capital source for newlyweds is from rice (43%) and that it is also the main source of incomes for 53% of farmers. Then, among interviewees, poor people represent 75% of the paid farming labor force and 100% of the construction workers. It underlines that without or with limited access to rice field, poor farmers develop strategies to get daily rice food first, and often contemplate to be owner of a small plot in a second time. This facts underlines the relevance of supporting farmers to be owner of their own rice field and especially for the poorest (both for social and economical aspects), because the wealthiest ones are more able to buy by their own. Setting-up Rice bank activity as a safety net during the critical periods is still relevant in that context. Migration existing initiatives have also to be considered in the issue of land access. Some complementary investigation should be done before to contemplate any action…