Presentation on theme: "AS Level English Literature Poetry Revision"— Presentation transcript:
1 AS Level English Literature Poetry Revision Robert Browning and Christina Rossetti.
2 Robert BrowningRobert Browning (7 May 1812 – 12 December 1889) was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. His mother was a devout Evangelical Christian. Later in his life he lived in Florence, Italy with his wife Elizabeth Barrett Browning and their son.
3 The Patriot Robert Browning SUMMARY: The narrator is warmly welcomed home by crowds of people at the beginning of the poem. By the end of the poem the patriot (one who supports his country) is seen to be a traitor.FORM:Dramatic monologueNarrative – story likeSTRUCTURE:Roman numerals between stanzas to show time frameFlowing ABAB rhyme scheme adds to pace of writing.LANGUAGE:Rhetorical questions are used to try to create empathy for the narrator.Repetition is used to highlight luxury ‘It was roses, roses all the way’Metaphorical language – contrast between before and after he was considered a patriot.Shambles’ Gate – to be hanged.
4 My Last Duchess Robert Browning SUMMARY: My Last Duchess is about a Duke who has recently had his wife, the duchess, killed for her ‘spot of joy’ and lack of propriety.FORM:Dramatic monologue – helps to exploit gap between what narrator wants us to know and the more implicit meanings.First person narrator – selfish, arrogant.STRUCTURE:Iambic pentameter in rhyming couplets – aids the flow of the poemEnjambment used to create rhythms – like real speechLack of stanzas to highlight instability of the narrator.LANGUAGE:Use of rhetorical questions to persuade the reader.Repetition of ‘as if alive’ and ‘stoop’‘Spot of joy’ is the cause of the duchess’ downfallDetached, emotionless language to highlight narrator’s ruthless power.Name dropping to show power and allude to Neptune.
5 The Pied Piper of Hamelin Robert Browning SUMMARY: The poem is an adaptation of the legend from the middle ages (1284). Hamelin (a town in Germany) has a pest problem (rats) and calls in the pied piper to get rid of them. When he asks for payment the mayor refuses to give him the agreed amount so the pied paper takes the children away.FORM:‘A child’s story’ – a poetic narrative retelling the legend3rd person narrative poemSTRUCTURE:Iambic tetrameter creates a jolly rhythmRoman numerals to show time has elapsedSome metrical variations and irregular rhyme scheme to highlight significant lines.LANGUAGE:Anaphora – repetitive structures (lines 12, 13, 14).Isolated word ‘rats!’ (line 10) to highlight the problemSensual imagery to describe characters and settings
6 Porphyria’s Lover Robert Browning SUMMARY: The action of Porphyria’s Lover unfolds through the recounting of the events of one night, culminating in the murder of Porphyria, by the speaker of the poem.FORM:Dramatic monologue1st person past tense – a recollection of the night of the murderSTRUCTURE:ABABB rhyme scheme and single stanza suggests the instability of the narratorAnaphora – repetitive structures also highlight instability.Cadence (rhythm) of the poem mimics real speechCaesura used to create dramatic effect ‘And strangled her.’ (line 41)LANGUAGE:Pathetic fallacy to create a setting and atmosphere in the opening of the poemMetaphorical languageAlliteration of plosives – harsh sounds prepare reader for what is to come.
7 Fra Lippo Lippi Robert Browning SUMMARY: Browning introduces us to Lippo as he is being interrogated by some Medici watchmen, who have caught him out at night. He shares with the men the hardships of monastic life: he is forced to carry on his relationships with women in secret, and his superiors are always defeating his good spirits. But Lippo’s most important statements concern the basis of art: should art be realistic and true-to-life, or should it be idealistic and didactic?FORM:Dramatic monologueAll ‘facts’ about artists and Lippo were taken from the book ‘Lives of the Painters’ by Giorgio Vasari.STRUCTURE:Roughly iambic pentameterBlank verse – no rhyme. Similar to speech patterns.Drunken encounter – a rant.LANGUAGE:Biblical language and references to artistsAnecdotalImageryChange of pace through rhetorical questions.
8 The Bishop Orders his Tomb Robert Browning SUMMARY: A fictional Renaissance bishop lies on his deathbed giving orders for the tomb that is to be built for him. He instructs his ‘nephews’—perhaps a group of younger priests—on the materials and the design, motivated by a desire to outshine his predecessor Gandolf, but he finally realises that he will not live to see his wishes carried out.FORM:Dramatic monologue – implied listeners ‘nephews’.STRUCTURE:Iambic pentameter and blank verse used to mimic speech.Long stanzas to reflect character of speakerLANGUAGE:Use of Latin to highlight status and intelligence of speaker.Rhetorical questions are used to persuade listeners of his requestsImagery to describe tomb and other art work.
9 Christina RossettiChristina Georgina Rossetti (5 December 1830 – 29 December 1894) was an English poet who wrote a variety of romantic, devotional, and children's poems. She worked as a volunteer from 1859 – 1870 at St Mary Magdalene house of charity – a refuge for former prostitutes. Rossetti became closely involved with the Park Village Sisterhood, an Anglican convent.
10 The Convent Threshold Christina Rossetti SUMMARY: The female speaker (who may now be a voice beyond the grave) tells her lover that their (illicit?) relationship cannot continue and that she wishes to enter a purer life in a convent, as a precursor for entry to heaven.FORM:Dramatic monologue – implied listener is the illicit lover.Employs several gothic motifs – blood shed, dreams, visions…STRUCTURE:Iambic tetrameter with some opening trochees (breaking out of set patterns)Irregular rhyme scheme with a song like rhythmInternal rhyme, alliteration and assonance usedRepetition to persuade.LANGUAGE:Metaphorical languageRhetorical questions – persuasionBiblical references
11 Cousin Kate Christina Rossetti SUMMARY: The poem’s female speaker recalls her contentment in her humble surroundings until the local ‘Lord of the Manor’ took her to be his lover. He discarded her when she became pregnant and his affections turned to another village girl, Kate, whom he then married. Although the speaker’s community condemned the speaker as a ‘fallen’ woman, she reflects that her love for the lord was more faithful than Kate’s. She is proud of the son she bore him and is sure that the man is unhappy that he and Kate remain childless.FORM:1st person narrative.Some qualities of a balladSTRUCTURE:Iambic tetrameters – allows poem to be read at speed and create a more pronounced rhythm.Final stanza’s rhythm does not follow others to symbolise the lack of unity a ring / marriage brings.LANGUAGE:Repetition and rhetorical questions convey anger and resentment.Sexual language – sensual.Imagery used to highlight comparisonsActive verbs used
12 Goblin Market Christina Rossetti SUMMARY: Goblin Market is about two close sisters, Laura and Lizzie, as well as the goblin men to whom the title refers, and another girl named Jeanie. Laura eats the fruit of the goblin men and eventually Lizzie has to go to the goblin men to save her sister.FORM:Third person, past tense omniscient narrator. Intended as a fairy story? Unsure.STRUCTURE:Irregular rhyme scheme and meterChaotic structure – all about feminine perspective (one sided / biased)Song like rhythm aids the flow of the poemAnaphora (repetitive structure) used at the end of the poem to deliver moral messageLANGUAGE:Opening reference to market links to Victorian market economy.Buying and selling symbolises prostitutionAnimalistic language used to portray the goblin menImagery to describe characters
13 Jessie Cameron Christina Rossetti SUMMARY: The poem tells the story of two young people, Jessie Cameron and her spurned lover. Whilst they stand on a beach at dusk, he begs for her love and she continues to reject his pleas. Eventually the tide comes in and traps them. The second half of the poem is based on the suspicions and thoughts of neighbours as they account for their disappearance and suspected death at sea.FORM:Third person past tense omniscient narrator.STRUCTURE:Traditional ballad style – carries the story forward and emphasises dramaABAB regular rhyme scheme – could resemble the tideIambic / anapaestic feet – rhythm of rising and falling sea.LANGUAGE:Sea is the central image of the poem – alliteration to replicate the sound of the sea.Long vowel sounds also reproduce sound of the seaImagery usedLine 83 – pause ‘-’ creates suspense and mimics the quietness which often follows a scream or loud noise.Gossip ‘some say’
14 Maude Clare Christina Rossetti SUMMARY: The poem recounts the story of two women, Maude Clare and Nell. They are both in love with the same man, Sir Thomas, who has chosen to marry Nell. On his wedding day, Maude turns up with wedding gifts consisting of the gifts he had presented to her through the course of their unfulfilled courtship. She declares to Nell that she can have what is left of the love Maude and Thomas shared. However, Nell asserts that she loves her husband enough to overlook his past.FORM:Third person past tense omniscient narrator.STRUCTURE:Traditional ballad structureABAB rhyme scheme (some ABCB – not quite regular, like the marriage)Iambic tetrameter / trimeter linesLANGUAGE:Dialogue from characters – gives reader information about charactersHyphens used to show pauses – Thomas faltersMetaphorical language – symbolises shadows and secretsComparisons between Maude Clare and NellGenerational contrast (line 9) shows context and Victorian ideas.
15 A Royal Princess Christina Rossetti SUMMARY: The poem begins by directly challenging the assumption that riches and privilege entail happiness. For the princess, who has a huge sense of compassion, watching people suffer due to the rule of her father causes her pain. Whilst she is provided with all the riches she could ever want her longing for justice, along with her loneliness and isolation, make her unhappy.FORM:First person narrative poem.STRUCTURE:Rhyming triplets to create fast paceTrochaic lines represent the monotony of the princess’ life.Long lines create a narrative effect.LANGUAGE:Use of dialogue to create more vivid charactersMetaphorical language.Anaphora increase the pace and aids the flow of the poem.Rhyming triplet ends the poem with a moral message.Onomatopoeia – sensual.Contrasts of wealth and poverty.
16 Winter: My Secret Christina Rossetti SUMMARY: A female speaker (female clothing?) is addressing an auditor who has asked her to tell her ‘secret’. She refuses on the grounds that the day is too cold, that perhaps there is nothing to tell and that she does not want to reveal herself, just as she does not want to be exposed to the cold. The speaker does not trust the assurances of the auditor that it will be alright, explaining that she is cautious even as springtime progresses. She may open up in the warmth of summer but otherwise the auditor will have to guess the secret.FORM:First person narrative poem.STRUCTURE:Mainly iambic – creates a conversational style.Rhyming couplets and tripletsInternal rhymeUse of enjambment to increase pace.LANGUAGE:Metaphorical language – seasons represent men / curiosity.Question and answer structure in first stanza – suggests implied listener.Possessive language